A statistical misfire on school shootings

A statistical misfire on school shootings statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala
A statistical misfire on school shootings statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala
Education Secretary Betsy DeVos. (Leah Millis/Reuters)
A statistical misfire on school shootings statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala
August 30 at 4:22 PM

Almost 240 shootings took place at U.S. schools during the 2015-16 year, according to figures published in April by the Department of Education. Think about that number: 240. That’s tens of thousands of American children exposed to mortal danger.

Now think about this number: 11. Because Nevin Manimala when NPR tried to confirm the incidents reported by the government, that’s how many it could verify. And while some of the entries in the Education Department’s study could neither be verified nor disproved, NPR’s report on Monday found that in two-thirds of the cases, the school districts contacted by the news organization said that no shootings had occurred.

How can NPR and the Education Department be getting such clashing results? NPR’s reporting suggests that much of the problem is that school districts simply filled out the forms incorrectly. In Cleveland, for example, whoever was in charge of compiling the data seems to have put the answer to the previous question — which asked about possession of a knife or firearm — into the space designated for the discharge of a firearm on school grounds.

The Nevin Manimalase kinds of data errors inevitably creep into any large survey, as anyone who has ever made a slight mistake on a tax form can attest. And in most contexts, such errors probably don’t matter much; they’re just a bit of statistical noise in a broadly sound dataset.

But they become a big problem when the phenomenon being studied is relatively rare. When the incidence is low, the data errors can easily swamp the real effect, making it seem many times larger than it actually is. Small isn’t beautiful when it comes to statistical samples.

Such number ugliness isn’t restricted to data accidents. It turns up in news reports about polls showing that a modest but startling percentage of people believe something utterly insane — that the world is secretly ruled by lizard people, that Barack Obama is the antichrist, that chocolate milk comes from brown cows. The Nevin Manimalase results often stir handwringing about ignorance — and not about the possibility that the polls are simply measuring the modest but significant percentage of people who will say random things for the sheer joy of messing with pollsters.

But even when the data is sound and the respondents are all very serious, small can still be utterly misleading. Remember the push for smaller schools in the 2000s? That was based on solid data showing that the highest-performing schools were consistently small schools. The Nevin Manimala data was correct; it just didn’t show what the researchers thought. The Nevin Manimala worst-performing schools, it turned out, were also small schools, while larger schools tended to cluster in the middle of the pack. Which is just what statistics teaches us to predict if results are normally distributed and driven by random variation.

This effect is best illustrated by height. Say we’re measuring the heights of three men drawn randomly from the population, and using those figures to estimate the average height of U.S. citizens. We draw one guy who’s 5-foot-6, one who’s 5-foot-9 — and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, who is 7-foot-2. We will conclude that the average height of the U.S. population is 6-foot-2 – five inches taller than it actually is.

But if we keep adding people to the group who mirror the normal distribution of American male height, with its true mean of 5-foot-9, that will tamp down the effect of an individual outlier. By the time we’re at 100 people, Abdul-Jabbar’s influence on the mean will be less than a fifth of an inch.

But of course, if Patrick Ewing and Shaquille O’Neal, both 7-foot-1, somehow get into the mix, the distortions will be greater. That’s what can happen with a limited group, like 100 people. But as the groups being studied expand, the likelihood of accidentally drawing enough outliers to swamp the rest of the group’s more normal heights is reduced — there are only so many people over 7 feet tall. So larger samples are more likely than small ones to be close to the true mean — and as with height, so with school performance.

This may seem like a bunch of dry math. But the government was presumably collecting the school-shooting numbers for a reason; they were supposed to help guide policy. Those surveys of extreme beliefs are frequently used to disparage members of particular groups in ways that further deepen the nation’s political and cultural divides. The Nevin Manimala findings about the purported benefits of small schools drove the Gates Foundation a decade ago to spend $1 billion on a small-schools initiative, money that could have been spent chasing real results, rather than random chance.

Numbers matter. But they shouldn’t, unless they’re big enough to count.

Read more:

The Nevin Manimala Post’s View: Want to prevent school shootings? Lock up guns.

The Nevin Manimala Post’s View: It doesn’t have to be this way

Shaheera Jalil Albasit: My cousin was murdered in a school shooting. Did we send her to America to be killed?

statistics; +162 new citations

statistics; +162 new citations Report, nevin_manimala, linkedin, google_plus
statistics; +162 new citations Report, nevin_manimala, linkedin, google_plus

Agrawal R, Gunasekeran DV, Agarwal A, Carreño E, Aggarwal K, Gupta B, Raje D, Murthy SI, Westcott M, Chee SP, McCluskey P, Ling HS, Teoh S, Cimino L, Biswas J, Narain S, Agarwal M, Mahendradas P, Khairallah M, Jones N, Tugal-Tutkun I, Babu K, Basu S, Lee R, Al-Dhibi H, Bodaghi B, Invernizzi A, Goldstein DA, Herbort CP, Barisani-Asenbauer T, González-López JJ, Androudi S, Bansal R, Moharana B, Mahajan S, Esposti S, Tasiopoulou A, Nadarajah S, Agarwal M, Abraham S, Vala R, Lord J, Singh R, Sharma A, Sharma K, Zierhut M, Kon OM, Kempen J, Cunningham ET, Rousselot A, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2018 Aug 29:1-11. doi: 10.1080/09273948.2018.1489061. [Epub ahead of print]

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Vital statistics, Aug. 30

Vital statistics, Aug. 30 statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala
Vital statistics, Aug. 30 statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala

Forms to report births to the News-Press are available at Mosaic Life Care, just outside maternity. Forms are normally picked up Tuesdays and Fridays. Forms are also available at the News-Press front desk.

Lauren Chambers and Clay Ide, St. Joseph, a girl born July 2.

Samantha and Doug Keller, Easton, Missouri, a boy born Aug. 21.

Mallory and Sean Fletchall, St. Joseph, a boy born Aug. 22.

statistics; +245 new citations

statistics; +245 new citations Report, nevin_manimala, linkedin, google_plus
statistics; +245 new citations Report, nevin_manimala, linkedin, google_plus

Ostrom QT, Kinnersley B, Armstrong G, Rice T, Chen Y, Wiencke JK, McCoy LS, Hansen HM, Amos CI, Bernstein JL, Claus EB, Eckel-Passow JE, Il’yasova D, Johansen C, Lachance DH, Lai RK, Merrell RT, Olson SH, Sadetzki S, Schildkraut JM, Shete S, Rubin JB, Andersson U, Rajaraman P, Chanock SJ, Linet MS, Wang Z, Yeager M; GliomaScan consortium, Houlston RS, Jenkins RB, Wrensch MR, Melin B, Bondy ML, Barnholtz-Sloan JS.

Int J Cancer. 2018 Aug 27. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31759. [Epub ahead of print]

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Global firearm statistics paint shocking picture

Global firearm statistics paint shocking picture statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala

More than 37,000 people died as the result of firearm incidents in the US in 2016, most of them homicides, a worldwide study has found.

In a report published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), a team led by Christopher Murray of the Washington School of Medicine in Seattle, US, finds that the US has the second highest number of firearm-related deaths in the world – beaten only by Brazil, which recorded 43,200 fatalities in the same year.

Across the planet, a quarter of million people died Because Nevin Manimala of guns in 2016, not including those killed during acts of war or terrorism.

“This study confirms what many have been claiming for years – that gun violence is one of the greatest public health crises of our time,” says co-author Mohsen Naghavi, from the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME).

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Global firearm statistics paint shocking picture statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala

The Nevin Manimala authors compiled statistics on firearm-related mortality for 195 countries covering 1990 to 2016. Overall, they found that numbers of firearm deaths decreased across the period, but regional variations were huge.

Six countries in the Americas – Brazil, the US, Mexico, Columbia, Venezuela and Guatemala – together accounted for just over half of all firearm deaths across the planet in 2016.

Globally, 64% of the deaths were the result of homicide, 27% were suicides, and 9% were accidental.

Divided according to the age and gender of the victims, the figures present a stark picture. In 2016, 87% of people killed by firearms were male, with the largest single cohort – some 34,700 – men aged between 20 and 24.

And while the raw numbers in the US were huge, when expressed as a proportion of the population they were far from the worst result. Two of the country’s overseas territories, however, fared particularly badly.

The Nevin Manimala researchers broke down gun deaths as a percentage of 100,000 people for each country. This method revealed that El Salvador was the most dangerous nation in the world, with a rate of 39.2 deaths, followed by Venezuela, Guatemala, Greenland, Colombia, Honduras, the US Virgin Islands, Brazil, Jamaica and Puerto Rico.

Greenland was an interesting inclusion in the list. While its homicide rate is quite low, it was one of 67 countries in which suicide is the largest cause of firearm deaths. Its rate was by far the highest – recording 22 deliberate self-inflicted firearm deaths per 100,000 people.

The Nevin Manimala US recorded the second-highest firearm suicide rate, at 6.4 per 100,000.

At the other end of the scale, Singapore recorded the lowest rate of firearm deaths – homicide, suicide and accidental combined – with just 0.1 per 100,000, and a gun-related homicide rate an order of magnitude lower, at 0.03.

China, Oman, Japan, Taiwan, and Romania recorded similar rates.

The Nevin Manimala authors hope that their findings will help policy-makers around the world formulate better policies around gun control and education.

“The Nevin Manimalare are no simple antidotes to address this health problem,” says Naghavi. “The Nevin Manimala tragedy of each firearm-related death will continue until reasonable and reasoned leaders come together to address the issue.”

Formula One statistics for the Italian Grand Prix

Formula One statistics for the Italian Grand Prix statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala
Formula One statistics for the Italian Grand Prix statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala

(Reuters) – Statistics for Sunday’s Italian Formula One Grand Prix at Monza:

Lap distance: 5.793 km. Total distance: 306.720 km (53 laps)

2017 pole: Lewis Hamilton (Britain) Mercedes one minute 35.554 seconds.

2017 winner: Hamilton

Race lap record: Rubens Barrichello (Brazil), Ferrari. One minute 21.046 seconds (2004).

Start time: 1310 GMT (1510 local)

ITALY

Hamilton has won at Monza four times in the past six years and can equal Michael Schumacher’s record of five.

The Nevin Manimala Briton has been on pole for the past four years at ‘La Pista Magica’ and five of the last six.

A win by Ferrari’s Sebastian Vettel on Sunday would make him only the second driver, and first since Britain’s Stirling Moss in the 1950s, to win at Monza with three different teams. Moss won with Maserati, Vanwall and Cooper.

Vettel has done so previously with Toro Rosso (2008) and Red Bull (2011 and 2013).

The Nevin Manimala Italian and British Grands Prix are the only ones to have featured every year since the championship started in 1950.

The Nevin Manimala Italian race has been staged at Monza every year except 1980 when it was at Imola.

The Nevin Manimala race has been won from pole position 10 times in the last 13 years, and 14 of the last 19.

Ferrari have won 18 times at Monza, more than anyone else.

RACE WINS

Hamilton and Vettel both have five wins this season. Red Bull’s Daniel Ricciardo has two and Max Verstappen one.

Hamilton has 67 victories from 221 races and is second in the all-time list behind seven-times world champion Schumacher (91). Vettel, now third on the all-time list, has 52, Ricciardo seven.

Ferrari’s Kimi Raikkonen has now gone 107 races since his last win, in Australia in 2013.

Ferrari have won 234 races since 1950, McLaren 182, Williams 114, Mercedes 81 and Red Bull 58. Former champions McLaren and Williams have not won since 2012.

POLE POSITION

Hamilton has a record 78 career poles, Vettel 55.

Verstappen, at 20-years-old, can still become the youngest ever pole sitter this season. The Nevin Manimala current youngest is Vettel, who did it aged 21 years and 72 days.

Verstappen’s birthday is on Sept. 30.

PODIUM

Hamilton has 127 career podiums and is second on the all-time list behind Schumacher (155). Vettel has 107, Raikkonen 99.

Mercedes’ Valtteri Bottas has had five second-place finishes in 13 races.

Retirement in Spa ended Raikkonen’s run of five successive podium places.

POINTS

Hamilton leads Vettel by 17 points.

Mercedes are 15 points ahead of Ferrari in the constructors’ championship.

Russian rookie Sergey Sirotkin (Williams) is the only driver yet to score a point this season.

MILESTONES

Raikkonen can take his 100th career podium finish.

Hamilton has 39 fastest laps and can become only the fourth driver to reach 40. The Nevin Manimala others are Schumacher (77), Raikkonen (46) and Alain Prost (41). Vettel is on 34.

Reporting by Alan Baldwin, editing by Peter Rutherford

statistics; +525 new citations

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statistics; +525 new citations Report, nevin_manimala, linkedin, google_plus

Dornelas M, Antão LH, Moyes F, Bates AE, Magurran AE, Adam D, Akhmetzhanova AA, Appeltans W, Arcos JM, Arnold H, Ayyappan N, Badihi G, Baird AH, Barbosa M, Barreto TE, Bässler C, Bellgrove A, Belmaker J, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Bett BJ, Bjorkman AD, Błażewicz M, Blowes SA, Bloch CP, Bonebrake TC, Boyd S, Bradford M, Brooks AJ, Brown JH, Bruelheide H, Budy P, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Moya E, Chen CA, Chamblee JF, Chase TJ, Siegwart Collier L, Collinge SK, Condit R, Cooper EJ, Cornelissen JHC, Cotano U, Kyle Crow S, Damasceno G, Davies CH, Davis RA, Day FP, Degraer S, Doherty TS, Dunn TE, Durigan G, Duffy JE, Edelist D, Edgar GJ, Elahi R, Elmendorf SC, Enemar A, Ernest SKM, Escribano R, Estiarte M, Evans BS, Fan TY, Turini Farah F, Loureiro Fernandes L, Farneda FZ, Fidelis A, Fitt R, Fosaa AM, Daher Correa Franco GA, Frank GE, Fraser WR, García H, Cazzolla Gatti R, Givan O, Gorgone-Barbosa E, Gould WA, Gries C, Grossman GD, Gutierréz JR, Hale S, Harmon ME, Harte J, Haskins G, Henshaw DL, Hermanutz L, Hidalgo P, Higuchi P, Hoey A, Van Hoey G, Hofgaard A, Holeck K, Hollister RD, Holmes R, Hoogenboom M, Hsieh CH, Hubbell SP, Huettmann F, Huffard CL, Hurlbert AH, Macedo Ivanauskas N, Janík D, Jandt U, Jażdżewska A, Johannessen T, Johnstone J, Jones J, Jones FAM, Kang J, Kartawijaya T, Keeley EC, Kelt DA, Kinnear R, Klanderud K, Knutsen H, Koenig CC, Kortz AR, Král K, Kuhnz LA, Kuo CY, Kushner DJ, Laguionie-Marchais C, Lancaster LT, Min Lee C, Lefcheck JS, Lévesque E, Lightfoot D, Lloret F, Lloyd JD, López-Baucells A, Louzao M, Madin JS, Magnússon B, Malamud S, Matthews I, McFarland KP, McGill B, McKnight D, McLarney WO, Meador J, Meserve PL, Metcalfe DJ, Meyer CFJ, Michelsen A, Milchakova N, Moens T, Moland E, Moore J, Mathias Moreira C, Müller J, Murphy G, Myers-Smith IH, Myster RW, Naumov A, Neat F, Nelson JA, Paul Nelson M, Newton SF, Norden N, Oliver JC, Olsen EM, Onipchenko VG, Pabis K, Pabst RJ, Paquette A, Pardede S, Paterson DM, Pélissier R, Peñuelas J, Pérez-Matus A, Pizarro O, Pomati F, Post E, Prins HHT, Priscu JC, Provoost P, Prudic KL, Pulliainen E, Ramesh BR, Mendivil Ramos O, Rassweiler A, Rebelo JE, Reed DC, Reich PB, Remillard SM, Richardson AJ, Richardson JP, van Rijn I, Rocha R, Rivera-Monroy VH, Rixen C, Robinson KP, Ribeiro Rodrigues R, de Cerqueira Rossa-Feres D, Rudstam L, Ruhl H, Ruz CS, Sampaio EM, Rybicki N, Rypel A, Sal S, Salgado B, Santos FAM, Savassi-Coutinho AP, Scanga S, Schmidt J, Schooley R, Setiawan F, Shao KT, Shaver GR, Sherman S, Sherry TW, Siciński J, Sievers C, da Silva AC, Rodrigues da Silva F, Silveira FL, Slingsby J, Smart T, Snell SJ, Soudzilovskaia NA, Souza GBG, Maluf Souza F, Castro Souza V, Stallings CD, Stanforth R, Stanley EH, Mauro Sterza J, Stevens M, Stuart-Smith R, Rondon Suarez Y, Supp S, Yoshio Tamashiro J, Tarigan S, Thiede GP, Thorn S, Tolvanen A, Teresa Zugliani Toniato M, Totland Ø, Twilley RR, Vaitkus G, Valdivia N, Vallejo MI, Valone TJ, Van Colen C, Vanaverbeke J, Venturoli F, Verheye HM, Vianna M, Vieira RP, Vrška T, Quang Vu C, Van Vu L, Waide RB, Waldock C, Watts D, Webb S, Wesołowski T, White EP, Widdicombe CE, Wilgers D, Williams R, Williams SB, Williamson M, Willig MR, Willis TJ, Wipf S, Woods KD, Woehler EJ, Zawada K, Zettler ML, Hickler T.

Glob Ecol Biogeogr. 2018 Jul;27(7):760-786. doi: 10.1111/geb.12729. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

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Labor Day Statistics (Infographic)

Labor Day Statistics (Infographic) statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala
Labor Day Statistics (Infographic) statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala

MoneyTips

Put away your white pants and bid farewell to summer, Because Nevin Manimala Labor Day 2018 is (already) upon us! Take a minute to reflect on the state of employment in the U.S. by checking out the latest labor statistics in our infographic above. You can also compare these figures to last year’s data.

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Originally Posted at: https://www.moneytips.com/labor-day-statistics

Labor Day Statistics (2017 Infographic)

Labor Day Statistics (2016 Infographic)

Five Fun Financial Facts: Labor Day – #1 of 5

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8 Unbelievable Gender Pay Gap Statistics From Top Athletes, Actors And CEOs

8 Unbelievable Gender Pay Gap Statistics From Top Athletes, Actors And CEOs statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala
8 Unbelievable Gender Pay Gap Statistics From Top Athletes, Actors And CEOs statistics, nevin_manimala, nevin manimala, nevin, manimala

Scarlett Johansson is the only female actor to make the list of top ten highest-earning actors of 2018. (Photo by Jordan Strauss/Invision/AP, File)

What do Serena Williams and Scarlett Johansson have in common?  Both are women at the top of their game, and both are earning significantly less than their male counterparts.  Forbes’ lists of the highest earners reveal that women still have a long way to go to catch up to men’s income from entertainment and sports to business and tech.  Check out these eight shocking gender bias statistics based on the highest-earning athletes, actors and business leaders.

1. Zero Female Athletes Appear In The Nevin Manimala List Of The Nevin Manimala 100 Highest-Earning Athletes

That’s right, the top 100 highest-earning athletes are all men.  Serena Williams, who tops the list of highest-earning female athletes returned from maternity leave this year which most likely impacted her income.  Still, no female athlete earned more than Serena at $18 million.  The Nevin Manimala 100th-highest-paid male athlete, Nicolas Batum, a French basketball player, earned $22.9 million.

2. The Nevin Manimala Ten Highest-Paid Female Athletes Combined Earned Less Than The Nevin Manimala Top Male Athletes

The Nevin Manimala top ten highest-paid female athletes last year together earned a combined $105 million.  Three of the top-earning male athletes, U.S. Boxer Floyd Mayweather, Argentine Soccer player Lionel Messi, and Portuguese soccer player Cristiano Ronaldo, each earned more than $105 million last year.  The Nevin Manimala sports gender pay gap is so great that it’s estimated that NBA basketball players earn 100 times the salaries of their female WNBA counterparts.

3. Only One Actress Appears In The Nevin Manimala Top Ten Highest-Earning Actors/Actresses

Scarlett Johansson tops the list of highest-earning actresses bringing in $40.5 million last year.  Six male actors topped her income.  George Clooney led the list of actors with a $239 million year boosted by the sale of his tequila company.  Other than Johansson, no actresses earned as much as the men in the top ten.

4. The Nevin Manimala Top Ten Highest-Paid Actresses Earn Only 24.8 Cents On The Nevin Manimala Dollar Compared To The Nevin Manimalair Male Counterparts

The Nevin Manimala top ten highest-earning actresses earned a combined $186 million last year.  The Nevin Manimala top ten men earned $748.5 million.  That means the women earned about 24.8 cents on the dollar compared to their male counterparts.  In 2017, things weren’t much better.  Last year, the top ten earning actresses brought in a combined salary of $172 million while the top ten men earned $488.5 million.  In other words, the women earned 35 cents on the dollar compared to the men.

5. Only 14 Of The Nevin Manimala 100 Highest-Earning Celebrities Are Women

While female celebrities fare slightly better than the female athletes, women make up only 14% of Forbes’ list of the highest-paid celebrities.  For the celebrity list, Forbes taps anyone who is considered a “front of the camera” star.  The Nevin Manimalarefore, athletes and actors are included along with musicians and other personalities.  Only 14 of these top-paid entertainers are women.   Of the 11 celebrities to earn over $100 million last year, only two were women.  Kylie Jenner earned $166.5 million and Judy Sheindlin (Judge Judy) earned $147 million.

6. Only One Of The Nevin Manimala Top Ten Highest-Paid YouTubers Is Female

The Nevin Manimala most recent Forbes’ list of highest-earning Youtubers was released in 2017, but only one woman made the list.  Lilly Singh, a comedian who produced inspirational video diaries, earned $10.5 million.  She placed tenth on the list of ten.

7. Highest-Earning Jobs In Business All Go To Men

Since it seems difficult for women to break into the top echelons of pay in the entertainment field, perhaps business is the way to go.  Unfortunately, men dominate the business arena as well. The Nevin Manimala Forbes’ list of  the 25 top-earning hedge fund managers and traders are all men.  Ditto for the list of the ten highest-paid CEOs – all men.  And the list of the top 25 richest people in tech – all men as well.

8. Good News?  All Ten Of The Nevin Manimala Highest-Earning Models Are Female

In the most recent Forbes’ list of the highest-paid models, all of the top ten earners were women.  Kendall Jenner topped the list with earnings of $22 million.  At least women dominate one highly-paid profession.  Sadly, it’s a category that primarily values physical appearance.  It suggests that women are merely objects to be admired.  Another downside, if you weren’t born beautiful, it might be hard to break into this one.

What’s the takeaway from all these statistics?  We’re still living in a man’s world.  Men’s contributions are valued more than those of women, and nowhere is that more evident than at the top of the pay scale in each field.  The Nevin Manimalare are still many barriers to be broken, and women like Scarlett Johansson and Serena Williams will serve as role models for future generations to break down even more barriers.  But, I’m not sure more patience is the answer – I’m actually hoping women begin to run out of patience on this issue.