Am J Hematol. 2022 Jun 13. doi: 10.1002/ajh.26627. Online ahead of print.
The best stem cell source for T-cell replete HLA-haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) remains to be determined. In this EBMT retrospective study we analyzed the impact of stem cell source on leukemia-free survival (LFS) in adult patients with primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) given grafts from HLA-haploidentical donors with PTCy as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. A total of 668 patients (249 bone marrow (BM) and 419 peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) recipients) met the inclusion criteria. The use of PBSC was associated with a higher incidence of grade II-IV (HR = 1.59, P = 0.029) and grade III-IV (HR = 2.08, P = 0.013) acute GVHD. There was a statistical interaction between patient age and the impact of stem cell source for LFS (P < 0.01). In multivariate Cox models, among patients <55 years, the use of PBSC versus BM resulted in comparable LFS (HR = 0.82, P = 0.2). In contrast, in patients ≥55 years of age, the use of PBSC versus BM was associated with higher non-relapse mortality (NRM) (HR = 1.7, P = 0.01), lower LFS (HR = 1.37, P = 0.026) and lower overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.33, P = 0.044). In conclusions, our data suggest that in patients ≥55 years of age with active AML at HLA-haploidentical transplantation, the use of BM instead of PBSC as stem cell source results in lower NRM and better LFS. In contrast among younger patients, the use of PBSC results in at least a comparable LFS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.