Nevin Manimala Statistics

Relationship between retraction and refraction values in patients with Duane’s retraction syndrome

J Fr Ophtalmol. 2024 May 23;47(7):104214. doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2024.104214. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To evaluate refractive findings in patients with unilateral Duane’s retraction syndrome (DRS).

METHODS: This retrospective study included 40 patients followed for unilateral DRS. Detailed ophthalmological examinations of the patients were performed. The spherical and cylindrical refractive error, spherical equivalent, and type of refractive error in the eyes with DRS and the fellow eyes were determined. The patients were divided into three subgroups according to their type of DRS. The refractive properties of the eyes with DRS were examined in subgroup analyses. Eye movement limitation was graded between +1 and +4 and compared according to the refractive error type.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 16.8±12.6 (range, 1-60) years. Of the eyes with DRS, 11 (27.5%) were emmetropic, four (10%) were hyperopic, two (5%) were myopic, 11 (27.5%) were myopic astigmatic, and 12 (30.0%) were hyperopic astigmatic. There was no statistically significant difference between the eyes with DRS and fellow eyes in relation to the spherical or cylindrical refractive errors or spherical equivalent (P>0.05 for all). The refraction values for the patients with type 1, type 2 and type 3 DRS were similar between groups (P>0.05). No statistically significant difference was detected in the degree of eye movement limitation according to refractive status (P>0.05).

CONCLUSION: In patients with unilateral DRS, there was no significant difference between the affected eyes and the fellow eyes in terms of refractive error values or types. Refractive status did not significantly differ according to the degree of eye movement limitation. Therefore, although extraocular muscles are affected by DRS, there may not be any significant refractive changes.

PMID:38788253 | DOI:10.1016/j.jfo.2024.104214

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Posterior scleral reinforcement surgery effectively slows the rate of high myopic progression in children

J Fr Ophtalmol. 2024 May 23;47(7):104213. doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2024.104213. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To investigate the rate of axial length elongation and high myopia progression in operated eyes before and after posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) surgery.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Children with pathological myopia treated with PSR at Beijing Tongren Hospital between May 2013 and May 2020 were recruited into the PSR surgery group. Children matched for age and myopia were recruited into the control group. All children underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations. The presurgical and postsurgical rates of axial length elongation and myopic (spherical equivalent) progression were calculated.

RESULTS: A total of 35 PSR patients were included in the study. The mean age was 6.5±3.0 years (range 2 to 14 years). Mean follow-up was 544 days (range 216 to 1657 days). The rate of axial length elongation was significantly less after posterior scleral reinforcement surgery (0.505±0.048mm per year prior to surgery; 0.382±0.045mm per year after surgery, P<0.001). The rate of myopic progression decreased after posterior scleral reinforcement surgery (1.162±0.118 D per year prior to surgery; 0.153±0.437 D per year after surgery, P=0.0239). There was no statistically significant difference in axial length elongation or myopic progression between pre-inclusion and post-inclusion in the control group. Moreover, the children’s best-corrected visual acuity was significantly improved after posterior scleral reinforcement surgery (P<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Posterior scleral reinforcement surgery effectively decreased the rate of high myopic progression and axial length elongation in children.

PMID:38788251 | DOI:10.1016/j.jfo.2024.104213

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Clinical profile of corneal sensitivity in diabetic patients: A case-control study

J Fr Ophtalmol. 2024 May 23;47(7):104212. doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2024.104212. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To evaluate the corneal sensitivity of black diabetic patients and identify factors associated with changes in corneal sensitivity.

METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional comparative case-control study at the National Obesity Center of the Yaounde Central Hospital and the Djoungolo District Hospital from March 1 to July 31, 2022. Corneal sensitivity was measured using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer in all diabetic patients over 18 years of age, matched for age and sex to a clinically healthy control population. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 software. A P-value of less than 5% was considered significant.

RESULTS: A total of 111 diabetic and 111 non-diabetic patients participated in the study. The mean age was 53.46±12.74 years for diabetics and 52.85±11.77 years for non-diabetics (P=0.901). The mean duration of diabetes was 6.4±5.30 years. Corneal sensitivity in diabetics was lower (44.56±9.59mm) compared to non-diabetics (53.59±6.30mm) with a statistically significant difference (P=0.000). Factors associated with decrease in corneal sensitivity in diabetics were duration of diabetes and poor glycemic control.

CONCLUSION: Decrease in corneal sensitivity related to diabetes is a complication to be systematically screened for during the ophthalmologic follow-up of diabetic patients.

PMID:38788250 | DOI:10.1016/j.jfo.2024.104212

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Non-invasive treatments improve patient outcomes in chronic tinnitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2024 May 2;90(4):101438. doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2024.101438. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relative effectiveness of various Non-Invasive Treatment Techniques (NITs) in chronic tinnitus management.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases from the time of data construction to December 31, 2022. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, NITs were evaluated, including Aacceptance and commitment therapy (A), Cognitive behavioral therapy (C), Sound therapy (S), Transcranial magnetic stimulation (T), Electrical stimulation therapy (E), Virtual reality therapy (V), tinnitus Retraining therapy (R), general psychotherapy (D), and Placebo (P). The outcome indicators included the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-anxiety-Depression (HADS-D), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Visual Analogue Scales-Loudness (VAS-L), and Visual Analogue Scales-Distress (VAS-D). Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 14.0 for NMA.

RESULTS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included 22 randomized controlled trials comprising 2,354 patients. The treatment effects varied on each scale. For THI, S (86.9%) was the most effective, whereas P (6.5%) was the worst. For TQ, C (89.5%) was the most effective, whereas D (25.4%) was the worst. For HADS-D, A (82.4%) was the most effective, whereas D (9.47%) was the worst. For ISI, A (83.2%) was the most effective, whereas R (20.6%) was the worst. For VAS-L, S (73.5%) was the most effective, whereas E (18.9%) was the worst. For VAS-D, C (84.7%) was the most effective, whereas P (18.1%) was the worst.

CONCLUSIONS: The combination of acoustics and cognitive behavioral therapy may be an effectively treat patients with chronic tinnitus.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: How common is the problem? Level 2. Is this diagnostic or monitoring test accurate? (Diagnosis) Level 1. What will happen if we do not add a therapy? (Prognosis) Level 1. Does this intervention help? (Treatment Benefits) Level 1. What are the COMMON harms? (Treatment Harms) Level 1. What are the RARE harms? (Treatment Harms) Level 1. Is this (early detection) test worthwhile? (Screening) Level 1I.

PMID:38788246 | DOI:10.1016/j.bjorl.2024.101438

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Federal and foundational research funding trends for cerebrovascular neurosurgeons: the decline of the cerebrovascular surgeon-scientist?

J Neurosurg. 2024 May 24:1-10. doi: 10.3171/2024.2.JNS232287. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: The number of cerebrovascular (CV) surgeons has grown with the rise of endovascular neurosurgery. However, it is unclear whether the number of CV surgeon-scientists has concomitantly increased. With increasing numbers of CV neurosurgeons in the US workforce, the authors analyzed associated changes in National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Neurosurgery Research and Education Foundation (NREF) funding trends for CV surgeons over time.

METHODS: Publicly available data were collected on currently practicing academic CV surgeons in the US. Inflation-adjusted NIH funding between 2009 and 2021 was surveyed using NIH RePORTER and Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research data. The K12 Neurosurgeon Research Career Development Program and NREF grant data were queried for CV-focused grants. Pearson R correlation, chi-square analysis, and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: From 2009 to 2021, NIH funding increased: in total (p = 0.0318), to neurosurgeons (p < 0.0001), to CV research projects (p < 0.0001), and to CV surgeons (p = 0.0018). During this time period, there has been an increase in the total number of CV surgeons (p < 0.0001), the number of NIH-funded CV surgeons (p = 0.0034), and the percentage of CV surgeons with NIH funding (p = 0.370). Additionally, active NIH grant dollars per CV surgeon (p = 0.0398) and the number of NIH grants per CV surgeon (p = 0.4257) have increased. Nevertheless, CV surgeons have been awarded a decreasing proportion of the overall pool of neurosurgeon-awarded NIH grants during this time period (p = 0.3095). In addition, there has been a significant decrease in the number of K08, K12, and K23 career development awards granted to CV surgeons during this time period (p = 0.0024). There was also a significant decline in the proportion of K12 (p = 0.0044) and downtrend in early-career NREF (p = 0.8978) grant applications and grants awarded during this time period. Finally, NIH-funded CV surgeons were more likely to have completed residency less recently (p = 0.001) and less likely to have completed an endovascular fellowship (p = 0.044) as compared with non-NIH-funded CV surgeons.

CONCLUSIONS: The number of CV surgeons is increasing over time. While there has been a concomitant increase in the number of NIH-funded CV surgeons and the number of NIH grants awarded per CV surgeon in the past 12 years, there has also been a significant decrease in CV surgeons with K08, K12, and K23 career development awards and a downtrend in CV-focused K12 and early-career NREF applications and awarded grants. The latter findings suggest that the pipeline for future NIH-funded CV surgeons may be in decline.

PMID:38788229 | DOI:10.3171/2024.2.JNS232287

Nevin Manimala Statistics

A survey of BWT variants for string collections

Bioinformatics. 2024 May 24:btae333. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btae333. Online ahead of print.


MOTIVATION: In recent years, the focus of bioinformatics research has moved from individual sequences to collections of sequences. Given the fundamental role of the Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) in string processing, a number of dedicated tools have been developed for computing the BWT of string collections. While the focus has been on improving efficiency, both in space and time, the exact definition of the BWT employed has not been at the center of attention. As we show in this paper, the different tools in use often compute non-equivalent BWT variants: the resulting transforms can differ from each other significantly, including the number r of runs, a central parameter of the BWT. Moreover, with many tools, the transform depends on the input order of the collection. In other words, on the same dataset, the same tool may output different transforms if the dataset is given in a different order.

RESULTS: We studied 18 dedicated tools for computing the BWT of string collections and were able to identify 6 different BWT variants computed by these tools. We review the differences between these BWT variants, both from a theoretical and from a practical point of view, comparing them on 8 real-life biological datasets with different characteristics. We find that the differences can be extensive, depending on the datasets, and are largest on collections of many similar short sequences. The parameter r, the number of runs of the BWT, also shows notable variation between the different BWT variants; on our datasets, it varied by a multiplicative factor of up to 4.2.

AVAILABILITY: Source code and scripts to replicate the results and download the data used in the article are available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

PMID:38788221 | DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btae333

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An Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Accelerated Orthodontics amongst Orthodontists

West Afr J Med. 2024 Mar 29;41(3):333-341.


BACKGROUND: Accelerated orthodontic teeth movement are procedures carried out to increase the rate of tooth movement thereby reducing treatment time. There are numerous techniques currently available to accelerate orthodontic treatment time, but evidence is still needed to determine the degree to which orthodontists accept and practice accelerated orthodontics. The present study is aimed at assessing the knowledge of Orthodontists on the practice of accelerated orthodontics; as well as their willingness to adopt it as a treatment option for their patients.

METHODOLOGY: Ethical approval was obtained before the commencement of the study. The study population comprised all orthodontists practicing in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered physically to the orthodontists at their annual general meeting. E-mails were further used to distribute the questionnaire to the orthodontists who were absent from the annual meeting. The questionnaire obtained information on respondents’ biodata, knowledge, attitude, and practice of accelerated orthodontic treatment procedures.Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS software version 27. The level of significance was 0.05 for all statistical analysis.

RESULTS: The study participants comprised 60 respondents, with a mean age of 34.18 years and a male-to-female ratio of 1.3:1. A Majority of them were satisfied with treatment time/duration (61.7%), they had a good knowledge of accelerated orthodontics (83.3%) with piezocision (75%) and micro-osteoperforation (63.3%) being the most popular. All orthodontists were interested in accelerated orthodontics, if it offered up to 30% reduction in treatment time. Major limitations to the practice included unavailability of technique materials (50%), insufficient knowledge (41.7%) and cost (35%).

CONCLUSION: Most orthodontists did not routinely practice accelerated orthodontics despite adequate knowledge. They were willing to offer accelerated orthodontic treatment (AOT) if patients were willing to pay an additional fee. The less invasive methods were more accepted.


Nevin Manimala Statistics

Meta-Analysis in Surgical Research: Methodology and Statistical Application

Am Surg. 2024 May 24:31348241256053. doi: 10.1177/00031348241256053. Online ahead of print.


In evidence-based medicine, systematic review continues to carry the highest weight in terms of quality and reliability, synthesizing robust information from previously published cohort studies to provide a comprehensive overview of a topic. Meta-analysis provides further depth by allowing for comparative analysis between the studied intervention and the control group, providing the most up-to-date evidence on their characteristics and efficacy. We discuss the principles and methodology of meta-analysis, and its applicability to the field of surgical research. The clinical question is defined using PICO framework (Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome). Then a systematic article search is performed across multiple medical databases using relevant search terms, which are then filtered out based on appropriate screening tools. Pertinent data from the selected articles are collected and undergo critical appraisal by at least two independent reviewers. Additional statistical tests may be performed to identify the presence of any significant bias. The data are then synthesized to perform comparative analysis between the intervention and comparison groups. In this article, we discuss specifically the usage of R software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) for data analysis and visualization. Meta-analysis results of the pooled data are presented using forest plots. Concerns for potential bias may be addressed through the creation of funnel plots. Meta-analysis is a powerful tool to provide highly reliable medical evidence. It may be readily performed by independent researchers with minimal need for funding or institutional approval. The ability to conduct such studies is an asset to budding medical scholars.

PMID:38788217 | DOI:10.1177/00031348241256053

Nevin Manimala Statistics

Web Application to Enable Online Social Interactions in a Parkinson Disease Risk Cohort: Feasibility Study and Social Network Analysis

JMIR Form Res. 2024 May 24;8:e51977. doi: 10.2196/51977.


BACKGROUND: There is evidence that social interaction has an inverse association with the development of neurodegenerative diseases. PREDICT-Parkinson Disease (PREDICT-PD) is an online UK cohort study that stratifies participants for risk of future Parkinson disease (PD).

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the methodological approach and feasibility of assessing the digital social characteristics of people at risk of developing PD and their social capital within the PREDICT-PD platform, making hypotheses about the relationship between web-based social engagement and potential predictive risk indicators of PD.

METHODS: A web-based application was built to enable social interaction through the PREDICT-PD portal. Feedback from existing members of the cohort was sought and informed the design of the pilot. Dedicated staff used weekly engagement activities, consisting of PD-related research, facts, and queries, to stimulate discussion. Data were collected by the hosting platform. We examined the pattern of connections generated over time through the cumulative number of posts and replies and ego networks using social network analysis. We used network metrics to describe the bonding, bridging, and linking of social capital among participants on the platform. Relevant demographic data and Parkinson risk scores (expressed as an odd 1:x) were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between risk scores (after log transformation) and network measures.

RESULTS: Overall, 219 participants took part in a 4-month pilot forum embedded in the study website. In it, 200 people (n=80, 40% male and n=113, 57% female) connected in a large group, where most pairs of users could reach one another either directly or indirectly through other users. A total of 59% (20/34) of discussions were spontaneously started by participants. Participation was asynchronous, with some individuals acting as “brokers” between groups of discussions. As more participants joined the forum and connected to one another through online posts, distinct groups of connected users started to emerge. This pilot showed that a forum application within the cohort web platform was feasible and acceptable and fostered digital social interaction. Matching participants’ web-based social engagement with previously collected data at individual level in the PREDICT-PD study was feasible, showing potential for future analyses correlating online network characteristics with the risk of PD over time, as well as testing digital social engagement as an intervention to modify the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases.

CONCLUSIONS: The results from the pilot suggest that an online forum can serve as an intervention to enhance social connectedness and investigate whether patterns of online engagement can impact the risk of developing PD through long-term follow-up. This highlights the potential of leveraging online platforms to study the role of social capital in moderating PD risk and underscores the feasibility of such approaches in future research or interventions.

PMID:38788211 | DOI:10.2196/51977

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Waiting Times in Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: A Ten-Year Experience in A Nigerian Teaching Hospital

West Afr J Med. 2024 Mar 29;41(3):317-321.


INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is still the leading male cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in Nigeria, and other low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Early diagnosis is essential to ensuring prompt treatment and reducing morbidity and mortality. Reducing the waiting times for diagnosis and treatment is therefore important.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study prostate cancer management waiting times, to serve as a baseline in improving the quality of cancer care in the Nigerian populace.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a ten-year retrospective study of waiting times of all histologically-confirmed prostate cancer patients seen at Alex-Ekwueme Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done SPSS version 26. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: however, 73 patients with complete data were analysed. The mean age of the patients was 71.48±8.16 years. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 months. The mean total prostate-specific antigen was 82.08±54.9ng/mL. The mean duration between the first visit to the definitive diagnosis was 6.53±11.68 months with a median of 1 month. The median duration from visit to treatment was 3 months with a mean of 9.71±13.4 months. There were no associations between occupation, highest educational level, financial constraints, and the different waiting times studied (P>0.05).

CONCLUSION: The waiting times for prostate cancer management were unduly prolonged in this study; patient-related factors did not influence this wait.

INTRODUCTION: Le cancer de la prostate est toujours le principal cancer chez les hommes et la principale cause de décès par cancer au Nigéria et dans d’autres pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire (PFR) en Afrique subsaharienne. Un diagnostic précoce est essentiel pour garantir un traitement rapide et réduire la morbidité et la mortalité. Il est donc important de réduire les délais d’attente pour le diagnostic et le traitement.

OBJECTIFS: Étudier les délais d’attente dans la prise en charge du cancer de la prostate, afin de servir de référence pour améliorer la qualité des soins contre le cancer dans la population nigériane.

PATIENTS ET MÉTHODES: Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective de dix ans sur les délais d’attente de tous les patients atteints de cancer de la prostate confirmé histologiquement et traités à l’hôpital universitaire fédéral Alex-Ekwueme, à Abakaliki, dans l’État d’Ebonyi, au Nigéria. L’analyse statistique a été réalisée avec la version 26 du logiciel SPSS. Une valeur de P inférieure à 0,05 a été considérée comme statistiquement significative.

RÉSULTATS: Un total de 189 patients ont présenté un cancer de la prostate ; cependant, seuls les 73 patients avec des données complètes ont été analysés. L’âge moyen des patients était de 71,48±8,16 ans. La durée médiane des symptômes avant la présentation était de 6 mois. La concentration moyenne d’antigène spécifique de la prostate (PSA) total était de 82,08±54,9 ng/mL. La durée moyenne entre la première visite et le diagnostic définitif était de 6,53±11,68 mois, avec une médiane de 1(1) mois. La durée médiane entre la visite et le traitement était de 3 mois, avec une moyenne de 9,71±13,4 mois. Aucune association n’a été observée entre l’occupation, le plus haut niveau d’éducation, les contraintes financières et les différents délais d’attente étudiés (P>0,05).

CONCLUSION: Les délais d’attente pour la prise en charge du cancer de la prostate étaient anormalement prolongés dans cette étude ; les facteurs liés au patient n’ont pas influencé cette attente.

MOTS-CLÉS: Cancer de la prostate, Délai d’attente, Délai, Diagnostic, Traitement.