Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Additive partitioning of multispecies distributional aggregation of local assemblages

J Anim Ecol. 2024 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.14114. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The distribution of species is not random in space. At the finest-resolution spatial scale, that is, field sampling locations, distributional aggregation level of different species would be determined by various factors, for example spatial autocorrelation or environmental filtering. However, few studies have quantitatively measured the importance of these factors. In this study, inspired by the statistical properties of a Markov transition model, we propose a novel additive framework to partition local multispecies distributional aggregation levels for sequential sampling-derived field biodiversity data. The framework partitions the spatial distributional aggregation of different species into two independent components: regional abundance variability and the local spatial inertia effect. Empirical studies from field amphibian surveys through line-transect sampling in southwestern China (Minya Konka) and central-southern Vietnam showed that local spatial inertia was always the dominant mechanism structuring the local occurrence and distributional aggregation of amphibians in the two regions with a latitudinal gradient from 1200 to nearly 4000 m. However, regional abundance variability is still nonnegligible in highly diverse tropical regions (i.e. Vietnam) where the altitude is not higher than 2000 m. In summary, we propose a novel framework that shows that the multispecies distributional aggregation level can be structured by two additive components. The two partitioned components could be theoretically independent. These findings are expected to deepen our understanding of the local community structure from the perspective of both spatial distribution and regional diversity patterns. The partitioning framework might have potential applications in field ecology and macroecology research.

PMID:38860293 | DOI:10.1111/1365-2656.14114

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Metachrony drives effective mucociliary transport via a calcium-dependent mechanism

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2024 Jun 11. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00392.2023. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The mucociliary transport apparatus is critical for maintaining lung health via the coordinated movement of cilia to clear mucus and particulates. A metachronal wave propagates across the epithelium when cilia on adjacent multiciliated cells beat slightly out of phase along the proximal-distal axis of the airways in alignment with anatomically directed mucociliary clearance. We hypothesized that metachrony optimizes mucociliary transport (MCT) and that disruptions of calcium signaling would abolish metachrony and decrease MCT. We imaged bronchi from human explants and ferret tracheae using micro-Optical Coherence Tomography (µOCT) to evaluate airway surface liquid depth (ASL), periciliary liquid depth (PCL), cilia beat frequency (CBF), MCT, and metachrony in situ. We developed statistical models that included covariates of MCT. Ferret tracheae were treated with BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca2+), lanthanum chloride (nonpermeable Ca2+channel competitive antagonist), and repaglinide (inhibitor of calaxin) to test calcium-dependence of metachrony. We demonstrated metachrony contributes to mucociliary transport of human and ferret airways. MCT was augmented in regions of metachrony compared to non-metachronous regions by 48.1%, P=0.0009 or 47.5%, P<0.0020 in humans and ferrets, respectively. PCL and metachrony were independent contributors to MCT rate in humans; ASL, CBF, and metachrony contribute to ferret MCT rates. Metachrony can be disrupted by interference with calcium signaling including intracellular, mechanosensitive channels, and calaxin. Our results support that the presence of metachrony augments MCT in a calcium-dependent mechanism.

PMID:38860289 | DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00392.2023

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Predictive value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in histological grade of incidental colorectal adenoma

Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2024 Jun;68(2):143-151. doi: 10.23736/S1824-4785.24.03554-4.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as an imaging modality for the whole body has shown its value in detecting incidental colorectal adenoma. In clinical practice, adenomatous polyps can be divided into three groups: low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) and cancer, which can lead to different clinical management. However, the relationship between the <inf>18</inf>F-FDG PET/CT SUV<inf>max</inf> and the histological grade of adenomatous polyps is still not established, which is a challenging but valuable task.

METHODS: This retrospective study included 255 patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA) or colorectal adenocarcinomas (AC) who had corresponding 18F-FDG uptake incidentally found on PET/CT. The correlations of SUV<inf>max</inf> with pathological characteristics and tumor size were assessed. Neoplasms were divided into LGIN, HGIN, and AC according to histological grade. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to evaluate the predictive value of the SUV<inf>max</inf>-only model and comprehensive models which were established with imaging and clinical predictors identified by univariate and multivariate analysis.

RESULTS: The SUV<inf>max</inf> was positively correlated with histological grades (r=0.529, P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that SUV<inf>max</inf> was an independent risk factor among all groups except between HGIN and AC. The area under the curves (AUCs) of the comprehensive model for distinguishing between AC and adenoma, LGIN and HIGN, LGIN and AC, and HGIN and AC were 0.886, 0.780, 0.945, 0.733, respectively, which is statistically higher than the AUCs of the SUV<inf>max</inf>-only model with 0.812, 0.733, 0.863, and 0.688, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: As an independent risk factor, SUV<inf>max</inf> based on 18F-FDG PET/CT is highly associated with the histological grade of CRA. Thus, 18F-FDG PET/CT can serve as a noninvasive tool for precise diagnosis and assist in the preoperative formulation of treatment strategies for patients with incidental CRA.

PMID:38860275 | DOI:10.23736/S1824-4785.24.03554-4

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

On QSAR modeling with novel degree-based indices and thermodynamics properties of eye infection therapeutics

Front Chem. 2024 May 27;12:1383206. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2024.1383206. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

Topological descriptors are numerical results generated from the structure of a chemical graph that are useful in identifying the physicochemical characteristics of a wide range of drugs. The introduction of molecular descriptors advances quantitative structure-property relationship research. This article focuses on the nine degree-based topological indices and the linear regression model of the eye infection drugs. We introduced two new indices, namely, the “first revised Randic index” and the “second revised Randic index, for the analysis of eye infection drugs. Topological indices are calculated by using edge partitioning, vertex degree counting, and vertex degree labeling. This analysis is done with a scientific calculator and then authenticated with Matlab, a potent tool for examining data. The experimental data and results of the topological indices serve as inputs for the statistical computations and provide the values of intercepts, slopes, and correlation coefficients. All the correlations for the eye-infection drugs are positive, indicating a direct relationship between the experimental and estimated results of the drugs. There are significant results of the p-test for all of the characteristics of eye infection, such as molecular weight, boiling point, enthalpy, flash point, molar refraction, and molar volume, that validate the accuracy of the computations. A significant link was determined in this study between the defined indices with two properties: molar weight and molar refraction. The molar weight and molar refraction have a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9. These results demonstrate a strong association between the indices and the properties under investigation. The linear regression approach is a valuable tool for chemists and pharmacists to obtain data about different medicines quickly and cost-effectively.

PMID:38860235 | PMC:PMC11163131 | DOI:10.3389/fchem.2024.1383206

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Reflections on the CODES trial for adults with dissociative seizures: what we found and considerations for future studies

BMJ Neurol Open. 2024 Jun 5;6(1):e000659. doi: 10.1136/bmjno-2024-000659. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

The COgnitive behavioural therapy versus standardised medical care for adults with Dissociative non-Epileptic Seizures multicentre randomised controlled trial is the largest, fully-powered study to test the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a psychotherapeutic intervention in this population. We also explored predictors or moderators of outcomes and investigated mechanisms of change in therapy. In this current review of findings, we discuss issues related to the design of the trial and consider the study’s nested qualitative studies which were undertaken not only to shed light on the original research questions but to provide insights and recommendations for other researchers in the field of functional neurological disorder. Finally, we consider issues relating to the possible clinical application of our study findings.

PMID:38860230 | PMC:PMC11163627 | DOI:10.1136/bmjno-2024-000659

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

The association between circulating leukocytes and inflammatory bowel disease: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study

Front Med (Lausanne). 2024 May 27;11:1399658. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2024.1399658. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a highly prevalent, recurrent, chronic intestinal inflammatory disease. Several observational studies have shown that circulating leukocytes are strongly associated with IBD. However, whether alterations in leukocytes are causally related to IBD remains uncertain. The present study explores this issue with the Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis method.

METHODS: The Genome wide association study (GWAS) statistical data related to circulating leukocytes and IBD were obtained from the Blood Cell Consortium and the IEU Qpen GWAS project, respectively. Inverse variance weighting (IVW) was used as the main MR analytical method, coupled with a series of sensitivity analyses to ensure the reliability of the results.

RESULTS: The results of IVW showed that increased monocyte count (especially CD14- CD16+ monocyte absolute counts) was negatively correlated with the risk of IBD and its main subtypes. Increased neutrophil count was positively associated with the risk of IBD and ulcerative colitis. Meanwhile, there was no causal relationship between basophil, eosinophil, lymphocyte counts and IBD risk.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a causal relationship exists between circulating leukocytes and the risk of IBD and its subtypes, which confirms the important role that the leukocyte immune system plays in IBD. Our findings provide additional research directions for the clinical prevention and treatment of IBD.

PMID:38860205 | PMC:PMC11163050 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2024.1399658

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Medication regimen complexity and its impact on medication adherence in patients with multimorbidity at a comprehensive specialized hospital in Ethiopia

Front Med (Lausanne). 2024 May 27;11:1369569. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2024.1369569. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medication regimen complexity (MRC) is suspected to hinder medication adherence in patients with multiple illnesses. Despite this, the specific impact on Ethiopian patients with multimorbidity is unclear. This study assessed MRC and its impact on medication adherence in patients with multimorbidity.

METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with multimorbidity who had been followed at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital (UoGCSH), Ethiopia, from May to July 2021. Medication complexity was measured using the validated Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) tool, and the Adherence in Chronic Diseases Scale (ACDS) was used to measure medication adherence. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to examine associations between MRCI levels and medication adherence. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of MRC and other associated variables on medication adherence. Statistical significance was determined using the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) at p-value <0.05 and its 95% confidence range.

RESULTS: Out of 422 eligible patients, 416 (98.6%) were included in the study. The majority of participants (57.2%) were classified as having a high MRCI score with a mean (±SD) score of 9.7 (±3.4). Nearly half of the patients (49.3%) had low medication adherence. Patients with medium (AOR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.72) and higher (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.79) MRCI levels had lower odds of medication adherence. In addition, monthly income (AOR = 4.59, 95% CI: 2.14, 9.83), follow-up durations (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.86), number of medications (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.97), and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.83) were significantly associated with medication adherence.

CONCLUSION: Medication regimen complexity in patients with multimorbidity was found to be high and negatively impacted the levels of medication adherence. Healthcare providers and other stakeholders should seek interventions aimed at simplifying drug regimen complexity and improving adherence.

PMID:38860203 | PMC:PMC11163062 | DOI:10.3389/fmed.2024.1369569

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Primary Healthcare Workers’ Awareness of Acute Rheumatic Fever & Rheumatic Heart Disease: A Study in Public Health Facilities in South Western Uganda

Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2024 Jun 4;15:223-229. doi: 10.2147/PHMT.S461168. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Timely identification and treatment of a streptococcal throat infection prevents acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and its progression to Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD). However, children in developing countries still present with established RHD, due to either missed, untreated or sub-optimally treated sore throats and ARF. We aimed to determine the level of knowledge, skills, and practices of primary health workers in South Western Uganda in providing care such children.

METHODS: We conducted a comparative quantitative cross-sectional study to assess knowledge, practices, and skills regarding the care of a child with a sore throat, ARF, and RHD. The responses were scored against a structured guide. The Fisher’s exact test and the chi-squared test with level of significance set at 0.05 were utilized to compare differences in knowledge, skills, and practices among health workers in private and public health facilities about ARF and RHD.

RESULTS: Eighty health workers from health facilities were interviewed in Mbarara district with a median age of 29.5 years (IQR 27.34) and median duration in practice of 5 years (IQR: 2, 10). On average, there were at least 3 children with sore throats weekly. At least 95% (CI: 87.25%-98.80%) of the health worker had awareness about ARF and RHD. Only 43.75% (95% CI: 33.18%-54.91%) had good knowledge about ARF and RHD. Majority, 61.25% (95% CI: 50.03%-71.39%) did not know the proper prophylaxis and investigations for a child with ARF. There were no statistically significant differences but a clinically meaningful differentials in the level of knowledge among health workers in public and private facilities.

CONCLUSION: The knowledge and skill level of health workers in primary healthcare facilities about ARF and RHD in South Western Uganda remains low, with no difference between practitioners in public and private facilities.

PMID:38860188 | PMC:PMC11162961 | DOI:10.2147/PHMT.S461168

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Therapeutic effects of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 aggravation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Front Pharmacol. 2024 May 27;15:1367686. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2024.1367686. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effects of vitamin D supplementation on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) aggravation remain controversial and inconclusive. To probe into this contentious issue, we performed the present meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

METHODS: Literature published up to June 2023 was retrieved from Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science and Embase. RCTs assessing mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV), length of hospitalization (LOH), and inflammatory markers containing C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, interleukin-6 (IL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were included. 19 RCTs were involved in the analysis and were conducted subgroup analyses on the baseline COVID-19 severity and vitamin D administration.

RESULTS: In the severity subgroup, statistically significant effects in moderate to severe group were observed in ICU admission (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23, 0.80; p = 0.008), MV (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27, 0.72; p = 0.001) and LOH (SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.92, -0.06; p = 0.027). In the administration subgroup, effects of ICU admission (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16, 0.97; p = 0.044), MV (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.07, 0.46; p = 0.000) and LOH (SMD -0.50, 95% CI -0.96, -0.04; p = 0.034) were more pronounced in patients supplied with multiple-dose vitamin D than single-dose. Although the result of mortality showed no statistically significant effect, it indicated a reduced trend (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.63, 1.12; p > 0.05). The results of inflammatory markers reached no statistical differences.

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed that moderate to severe COVID-19 patients supplied with multiple doses of vitamin D were less apt to need ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and have shorter hospital stays.

PMID:38860175 | PMC:PMC11163116 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2024.1367686

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Comparison of the safety profiles for pirfenidone and nintedanib: a disproportionality analysis of the US food and drug administration adverse event reporting system

Front Pharmacol. 2024 May 27;15:1256649. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2024.1256649. eCollection 2024.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology. Pirfenidone (PFD) and nintedanib (NDN) were both conditionally recommended in the clinical practice guideline published in 2015. Safety and tolerability are related to the risk of treatment discontinuation. Therefore, this study evaluated and compared the adverse events (AEs) of PFD and NDN in a large real-world population by analyzing data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to provide a reference for their rational and safe use.

METHODS: The AEs of PFD and NDN were extracted from the FAERS database. The pharmacovigilance online analysis tool OpenVigil 2.1 was used to retrieve data from the FAERS database from the first quarter of 2012 to the second quarter of 2022. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) and proportional reporting ratio were used to detect the risk signals.

RESULTS: The database included 26,728 and 11,720 reports for PFD and NDN, respectively. The most frequent AEs of PFD and NDN were gastrointestinal disorders. The RORs for these drugs were 5.874 and 5.899, respectively. “Cardiac disorders” was the most statistically significant system order class for NDN with an ROR of 9.382 (95% confidence interval = 8.308-10.594). Furthermore, the numbers of designated medical events of PFD and NDN were 552 and 656, respectively. Notably, liver injury was reported more frequently for NDN (11.096%) than for PFD (6.076%).

CONCLUSION: This study revealed differences in the reporting of AEs between PFD and NDN. The findings provide reference for physicians in clinical practice. Attention should be paid to the risks of cardiac disorders and liver injury associated with NDN.

PMID:38860173 | PMC:PMC11163030 | DOI:10.3389/fphar.2024.1256649