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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Prevalence and associated factors of needle stick and sharps injuries among healthcare workers in northwestern Ethiopia

PLoS One. 2021 Sep 24;16(9):e0252039. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252039. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) are a common problem among healthcare workers (HCWs). Although the factors related to NSSIs for HCWs are well documented by several studies in Ethiopia, no evidence has been reported about the magnitude of and factors related to NSSIs in hospitals in northwestern Ethiopia.

METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out from January to March 2019 among 318 HCWs in three randomly-selected hospitals of the eight hospitals found in South Gondar Zone. Sample sizes were proportionally allocated to professional categories. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling methods using the monthly salary payroll for each profession as the sampling frame. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The outcome of this study was the presence (injured) or absence of NSSIs during the 12 months prior to data collection. A binary logistic regression model with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used for data analysis. Variables from the bi-variable analysis with a p-value ≤ 0.25 were retained into the multivariable analysis. From the multivariable analysis, variables with a p-value less than 0.05 was declared as factors significantly associated with NSSIs.

MAIN FINDINGS: The prevalence of NSSIs was 29.5% (95% CI: 24.2-35.5%) during the 12 months prior to the survey. Of these, 46.0% reported that their injuries were moderate, superficial (33.3%) or severe (20.7%). About 41.4% of the injuries were caused by a suture needle. Factors significantly associated with NSSIs were occupation as a nurse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.18-4.26), disposal of sharp materials in places other than in safety boxes (AOR = 3.93, 95% CI: 2.10-5.35), recapping of needles (AOR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.56), and feeling sleepy at work (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.14-4.41).

CONCLUSION: This study showed that almost one-third of HCWs had sustained NSSIs, a proportion that is high. Factors significantly associated with NSSIs were occupation as a nurse, habit of needle recapping, disposal of sharp materials in places other than in safety boxes and feeling sleepy at work. Observing proper and regular universal precautions for nurses during daily clinical activities and providing safety boxes for the disposal of sharp materials, practicing mechanical needle recapping and preventing sleepiness by reducing work overload among HCWs may reduce the incidence of NSSIs.

PMID:34559802 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0252039

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Causes of death after biannual azithromycin treatment: A community-level randomized clinical trial

PLoS One. 2021 Sep 24;16(9):e0250197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250197. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

The MORDOR study, a masked, community-level randomized clinical trial conducted in Niger, Malawi and Tanzania (2015 to 2017), showed that biannual administration of single-dose azithromycin to preschool children reduced all-cause mortality. We sought to evaluate its impact on causes of death in children aged 1-59 months in Tanzania. A random sampling of 614 communities was conducted in Kilosa District, Tanzania, with simple random assignment of communities to receive either azithromycin or placebo. In these communities, a census was carried out every 6 months and children aged 1-59 months received biannual (every 6 months), single-dose azithromycin (~20mg/kg) or placebo depending on community assignment, over a 2-year period. Mortality was determined at the time of the biannual census. For child deaths, a verbal autopsy was performed to ascertain the cause using a standardized diagnostic classification. A total of 190- (0.58 /100 person-years) and 200 deaths (0.59/100 person-years) were reported in the azithromycin and placebo arms, respectively. Malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea, accounted for 71% and 68% of deaths in the respective arms. Overall, the mortality was not different by treatment arm, nor were the distribution of causes of death after adjusting for community clustering. The cause-specific mortality for diarrhea/pneumonia was no different over time. In children aged 1-5 months, 32 deaths occurred in the placebo arm and 25 deaths occurred in the azithromycin arm; 20 (62.5%) deaths in the placebo- and 10 (40%) in the azithromycin arm were attributed to diarrhea or pneumonia. Neither differences in the number of deaths nor the diarrhea/pneumonia attribution was statistically significant after adjusting for community clustering. In conclusion, azithromycin was not associated with a significant decline in deaths by specific causes compared to placebo. The non-significant lower rates of diarrhea or pneumonia in children <6 months who received azithromycin merit further investigation in high-mortality settings. Trial registration: NCT02048007.

PMID:34559801 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0250197

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Suicidality and COVID-19: Data from an Emergency Setting in Italy

Psychiatr Danub. 2021 Sep;33(Suppl 9):158-163.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicidality is a widespread phenomenon with a dramatic burden worldwide. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic determined a relevant impact on mental health, due to the infection itself and its socio-economic consequences. The present study is aimed at analyzing the prevalence of suicidality during the Covid-19 pandemic among subjects requiring a psychiatric consultation in an emergency setting.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Socio-demographic and clinical information was collected at the emergency department of the General Hospital of Perugia from June 1st, 2020 to January 31st, 2021. Data was entered into an electronic datasheet and retrospectively analysed. Pearson’s bivariate correlation was performed in order to assess significant associations between suicide-related variables and specific socio-demographic and clinical features (p<0.05).

RESULTS: Among 447 subjects included in the analysis, 109 (24.4%) showed suicidality-related phenomena, particularly suicide attempts (SA) (n=44, 9.8%), suicidal ideation (SI) (n=41, 9.2%), non suicidal self-injury (NSSI) (n=31, 6.9%), that in some cases co-occurred. A statistically significant association was detected between NSSI and living with marital family (p=0.024) and between suicidality-related phenomena and adjustment disorders (p=0.018). None of the examined subjects reported a previous positivity for Covid-19 and neither did their relatives.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on suicide-related phenomena. Consultation psychiatry fulfills a key role in the early detection and clinical management of these conditions, that require targeted intervention strategies.

PMID:34559796

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Interactions between Anxiety Levels and Life Habits Changes in General Population during the Pandemic Lockdown: Decreased Physical Activity, Falling Asleep Late and Internet Browsing about COVID-19 Are Risk Factors for Anxiety, whereas Social Media Use Is not

Psychiatr Danub. 2021 Sep;33(Suppl 9):119-129.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially contributed to increased anxiety rates among the general population worldwide. Pandemic-related health anxiety and worries about getting COVID-19 can lead to generalized anxiety and anxiety somatization, which, together with insalubrious daily life habits, are risk factors of worsening somatic health in people with SARS-Cov-2 infection.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study is a part of the COMET-G project (40 countries, n=55589; approved by the Ethics Committee of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), which represents an intermediate analysis of data collected anonymously via online links from a national sample of the Russian general population (n=9936, 31.09±12.16 y.o., 58.7% females) to estimate anxiety using STAI-S and self-reported changes in anxiety and life habits (physical activity, nutrition and weight, internet use, sleep) during the lockdown. All statistical calculations (descriptive statistics, between group comparisons using chi-square test, MANOVA, ANOVA, significant at p<0.05) were performed with IBM SPSS 27.

RESULTS: Overall STAI-S scores were 29±5.4, a subjective feeling of anxiety increase was reported in 40.3% of respondents (43.9% significantly > in females), worsening to clinical anxiety in 2.1% (2.4% > in females). 54.2% of respondents reported decreased physical activity, 33.1% gained weight, 72% used internet more often, 52.6% experienced worries related to the information about COVID-19 (56.8% > in females). 88% experienced worsened sleep quality, 69.2% stayed up until late, 23.2% took sleeping pills, and 31% had nightmares in which they felt trapped. To ANOVA, such life habits as reduced physical activity during the lockdown, increased time spent online, internet browsing about COVID-19, tendency to stay up late, use of sleeping pills and disturbing dreams with scenario of being trapped were significantly related to worsening of clinical anxiety. However, eating behaviour, weight changes, and social media use did not contribute to the clinical anxiety increase.

CONCLUSIONS: Factors of decreased physical activity and sleep disturbances related to the lockdown, as well as excessive internet browsing for information about COVID-19, emerged as risk factors for increased anxiety, more notably in women than in men. Preventive measures should be targeted against relevant factors imparting anxiety in the vulnerable population.

PMID:34559790

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A One-Day Cross-Sectional Study of Antidepressants Prescription Patterns in Public Mental Health Services: Clinical Guidelines vs Real Clinical Practice in Russia

Psychiatr Danub. 2021 Sep;33(Suppl 9):47-54.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antidepressants (AD) are widely used in the treatment of mood disorders and administered for mental disorders coded across other diagnostic categories. However, inaccuracy in AD prescription may lead to unresponsive cases, decreased compliance, and treatment discontinuation. Following a one-way cross-sectional study design, we aimed to analyze the AD prescription patterns in routine clinical practice in Moscow, as compared to clinical guidelines, taking the capital as representative of the Russian national experience.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied 537 medical case records of inpatients and outpatients who had received treatments on an arbitrarily chosen day, focusing on classes, doses, drug combinations, and switching patterns for AD prescription. All statistical calculations (descriptive statistics, between group comparisons using Fisher exact, binominal and Pearson chi-square tests, significant at two-tailed p<0.05) were performed with the IBM SPSS 27.

RESULTS: 15% of inpatients and 52% of outpatients with mental disorders received ADs. ADs were prescribed for major depressive disorder and other diagnoses, including the majority of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and non-organic conditions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, particularly fluvoxamine, were used most often for outpatient and inpatient settings, but at lower average dose rather than recommended, while tricyclic ADs were more likely to be correctly administered for severe depression. ADs were often prescribed within combined treatment rather than monotherapy, but clinical recommendations were not strictly followed in relation to the drug choice, combination with antipsychotic agents and switching strategies.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical reality of AD prescriptions in the studied psychiatric setting differed from the clinical guidelines, insofar as the choice of AD medication did not always follow evidence-based recommendations. Choice and dosage of ADs should properly follow duration and severity of the illness, and the clinical profile of disorders.

PMID:34559778

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Does Post-Traumatic Spectrum Comorbidity Influence Symptom Severity in Bipolar Disorders? A Cross-Sectional Study in a Real-World Setting

Psychiatr Danub. 2021 Sep;33(Suppl 9):41-46.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between post-traumatic spectrum comorbidity and the severity of symptoms in subjects diagnosed with Bipolar Disorders (BD).

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In- and outpatients diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were consecutively recruited. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Psychopathology was evaluated by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Sociodemographic, clinical and psychopathological characteristics of BD subjects with and without sub-threshold PTSD were compared by means of bivariate analyses (p<0.05).

RESULTS: BD subjects with post-traumatic spectrum comorbidity (n=24.49%) presented a significantly higher number of hospitalizations when compared to those who did not present the co-occurrence of the two conditions (2.67±2.3 versus 1.65±2.32, p=0.039). As for treatment features, subjects with subthreshold PTSD were more frequently prescribed benzodiazepines at the moment of evaluation or in the past (n=18, 100% versus n=22.55%, p=0.032). When assessing differences in terms of psychopathological characteristics, subjects with subthreshold PTSD showed higher HAM-D total score (16.22±9.06 versus 10.22±7.23, p=0.032) and higher PANSS negative symptom scale score (16.06±6.92 versus 11.41±4.68, p=0.017).

CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that subthreshold PTSD may underpin higher symptom severity and worse outcomes when occurring as a comorbid condition in BD.

PMID:34559777

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Relationships Among Exercise, Mindfulness, Mental Health, and Academic Achievement Among Prelicensure Nursing Students

Nurse Educ. 2021 Sep 17. doi: 10.1097/NNE.0000000000001106. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing school is challenging and can be stressful for many students. Nursing students are also susceptible to stress, anxiety, and depression. Exercise and mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to improve mental health outcomes in other populations, but it is not known how these strategies influence academic achievement.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among exercise, mindfulness, academic achievement, and mental health among undergraduate nursing students.

METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional design that uses correlational, regression, and mediation analyses.

RESULTS: Mindfulness was inversely associated with depression and anxiety and, although not statistically significant, was positively associated with academic achievement. Exercise was not significantly associated with anxiety or academic achievement but was associated with depression.

CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based interventions that promote mindfulness among nursing students should be implemented to promote mental health and academic achievement, especially because MBIs are cost-effective and convenient alternatives to other psychotherapies.

PMID:34559767 | DOI:10.1097/NNE.0000000000001106

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Comparison of Mid- to Long-term follow-up of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measures after Single-level Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty, Multi-level Lumbar Total Disc Arthroplasty, and the Lumbar Hybrid Procedure for the Treatment of Degenerative Disc Disease

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Sep 22. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000004253. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Cohort Study.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to compare the mid- to long-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) between single-level total disc arthroplasty (TDA), multi-level TDA, and hybrid constructs (combination of TDA and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) across multiple levels) for symptomatic degenerative disc disease (DDD).

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The treatment of single-level DDD is well documented using TDA. However, there is still a paucity of published evidence regarding long-term outcomes on multi-level TDA and hybrid constructs for the treatment of multi-level DDD, as well as lack of long-term comparisons regarding treatment of single-level DDD and multi-level DDD.

METHODS: 950 patients underwent surgery for single-level or multi-level DDD between July 1998 and February 2012 with single-level TDA (n = 211), multi-level TDA (n = 122) or hybrid construct (n = 617). Visual Analog Score for the back (VAS-B) and leg (VAS-L) were recorded, along with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ).

RESULTS: All PROMs in all groups showed statistically and clinically significant improvements (p < 0.005) in pain and function that is well above the corresponding minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and exceeds literature thresholds for substantial clinical benefit (SCB). Unadjusted analyses show that there were no statistically significant differences in the change scores between the surgery groups for VAS back and leg pain, and RMDQ up to 8 years follow-up. Adjusted analyses showed the ODI improvement score for the single group was 2.2 points better (95%CI: 0.6, 3.9, p = 0.009) than in the hybrid group. The RMDQ change score was better in the hybrid group than in the multi-level group by 1.1 points (95%CI: 0.4, 1.9, p = 0.003) at 6 months and a further 0.4 point at 2 years (95%CI: 0.1, 0.8, p = 0.011).

CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of meticulous pre-operative evaluation in establishing a precision diagnosis, clinically and statistically equivalent results can be achieved when treating symptomatic DDD through single-level TDA, multi-level TDA, and hybrid constructs. These results are sustained at mid- to long-term follow-up.Level of Evidence: 3.

PMID:34559766 | DOI:10.1097/BRS.0000000000004253

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Biomechanical Evaluation of Semi-rigid Junctional Fixation Using a Novel Cable Anchor System to Prevent Proximal Junctional Failure in Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000004228. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A porcine cadaveric biomechanical study.

OBJECTIVE: To biomechanically evaluate a novel Cable Anchor System as semi-rigid junctional fixation technique for the prevention of proximal junctional failure after adult spinal deformity surgery and to make a comparison to alternative promising prophylactic techniques.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The abrupt change of stiffness at the proximal end of a pedicle screw construct is a major risk factor for the development of proximal junctional failure after adult spinal deformity surgery. A number of techniques that aim to provide a gradual transition zone in range of motion (ROM) at the proximal junction have previously been studied. In this study, the design of a novel Cable Anchor System, which comprises a polyethylene cable for rod fixation, is assessed.

METHODS: Ten T6-T13 porcine spine segments were subjected to cyclic 4 Nm pure-moment loading. The following conditions were tested: uninstrumented, 3 level pedicle screw fixation (PSF), and PSF with supplementary Cable Anchors applied proximally at 1-level (Anchor1) or 2-levels (Anchor2), transverse process hooks (TPH), and 2-level sublaminar tapes (Tape2). The normalized segmental range of motion in the junctional zone was compared using one-way analysis of variance and linear regression.

RESULTS: Statistical comparison at the level proximal to PSF showed significantly lower ROMs for all techniques compared to PSF fixation alone in all movement directions. Linear regression demonstrated a higher linearity for Anchor1 (0.820) and Anchor2 (0.923) in the junctional zone in comparison to PSF (1-level: 0.529 and 2-level: 0.421). This linearity was similar to the compared techniques (TPH and Tape2).

CONCLUSION: The Cable Anchor System presented in this study demonstrated a gradual ROM transition zone at the proximal end of a rigid pedicle screw construct similar to TPH and 2-level sublaminar tape semi-rigid junctional fixation constructs, while providing the benefit of preserving the posterior ligament complex.Level of Evidence: 5.

PMID:34559764 | DOI:10.1097/BRS.0000000000004228

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Interreader agreement in evaluation of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT at the time of initial staging: comparison of the three evaluation criteria in the pretreatment risk groups

Nucl Med Commun. 2021 Sep 23. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0000000000001485. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the interreader agreement in evaluation 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT according to three current criteria European association of nuclear medicine, PROMISE with miTNM, and PSMA-RADS in newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC) patients.

METHODS: The images of 101 patients who had been diagnosed with PC and underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT at the time of initial staging were evaluated according to the three interpretation criteria by two nuclear medicine specialists. Local tumor, pelvic lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were evaluated separately. Abdominal lymph nodes, bone and visceral organ metastases were additionally evaluated as subregions of distant metastatic sites. Patients were evaluated in subgroups Gleason score ≥8 or prostate-specific antigen ≥20 ng/mL as the high-risk group (HR) and prostate-specific antigen ≤ 20 ng/mL and Gleason score <8 as the low-risk group (LR). To measure interreader agreement for each judgment site Cohen’s Kappa statistic coefficient (κ) was calculated.

RESULTS: All three criteria European association of nuclear medicine, PROMISE with miTNM and PSMA-RADS exhibit substantial and almost perfect agreement between the readers in all sites except for PSMA-RADS in bone and visceral metastasis (κ = 0.495, κ = 0.506, respectively). According to the risk groups, a remarkable difference in interreader agreement for bone metastasis for all three criteria (especially in PSMA-RADS) between the HR and LR patients was detected.

CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk patients especially PSMA-RADS criteria leads to increased interreader reporting differences. While evaluating 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images it should be considered that pretreatment risk levels of PC patients could affect the interreader agreement.

PMID:34559761 | DOI:10.1097/MNM.0000000000001485