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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Confounding factors affecting the clinical decision-making of nursing and midwifery students post-pandemic COVID-19: cross-sectional study in Jordan

BMC Nurs. 2024 Jun 24;23(1):424. doi: 10.1186/s12912-024-02108-3.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ability of a nurse to make effective clinical decisions is the most important factor that can affect the treatment quality. However, several factors can affect the ability of nursing and midwifery students to make effective clinical decisions.

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify the confounding factors that may affect the clinical decision making of nurses and thus patient outcomes after the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan.

METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed in this study. An online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 269 nursing and midwifery students selected through purposive sampling, 224 of whom completed the questionnaire. The valid and reliable nursing decision-making instrument, which consisted of 24 items, was employed to gather the data, and descriptive statistics and simple linear regression were employed for the data analysis. Data was collected from November to the end of December 2022.

RESULTS: Among the respondents, 72.8% were female, and the average age was 20.79 years (SD = 1.44). The vast majority of the respondents (94.6%) was unmarried, and 74.1% were pursuing a nursing degree. The simple linear regression analysis showed that clinical decision making had a negative and significant relationship with social media usage of an average of 6 h a day (β=-0.085). Moreover, the male nursing students obtained lower clinical decision-making scores (β= -0.408) compared with the female nursing students.

CONCLUSION: Social media usage and gender have a considerable effect on the clinical decision making of the nursing and midwifery students. Therefore, the confounding factors that can affect the clinical decision making of nurses should be discussed further, and strategies to address such factors should be implemented.

PMID:38910263 | DOI:10.1186/s12912-024-02108-3

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Impact of digital infrastructure construction on the migrants’ utilization of basic public health services in China

BMC Health Serv Res. 2024 Jun 23;24(1):761. doi: 10.1186/s12913-024-11221-7.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global digitalization significantly impacts public health by improving healthcare access for marginalized populations. In China, socioeconomic disparities and the Hukou system create significant barriers for the migrant population to access basic public health services (BPHS). This study aimed to assess how digital infrastructure construction (DIC) affects BPHS utilization among China’s migrant populations, filling a gap in the literature regarding the relationship between digital advancements and health service accessibility.

METHODS: This research used micro-level data from the 2018 China Migrants Dynamic Survey and incorporated variables aligned with the Broadband China policy to employ a comprehensive empirical strategy. It included baseline regressions, robustness checks through propensity score matching and machine learning techniques, and heterogeneity analysis to explore the differential impacts of DIC based on gender, age, education level, and Hukou status.

RESULTS: The findings revealed that DIC significantly enhances the likelihood of migrants establishing health records and registering with family doctors, demonstrating quantifiable improvements in health service utilization. Heterogeneity analysis further indicated that the beneficial impacts of DIC were more pronounced among female migrants, those with higher education levels, younger populations, and urban Hukou holders.

CONCLUSIONS: DIC plays a crucial role in bridging the accessibility gap to BPHS for migrant populations in China, contributing to narrowing health disparities and advancing social equity. These results emphasize the significance of digital infrastructure in public health strategies and offer valuable insights for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers. Future research should prioritize longitudinal studies on the sustained effects of DIC and tailor digital health initiatives to meet the unique needs of migrant populations, promoting inclusive health policy planning and implementation.

PMID:38910262 | DOI:10.1186/s12913-024-11221-7

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Effect of women empowerment on treatment seeking practice for sexually transmitted infections among women in Ethiopia

BMC Infect Dis. 2024 Jun 23;24(1):623. doi: 10.1186/s12879-024-09535-2.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are public health problems in Ethiopia. Women have a higher chance of acquiring STI. STI complications are more severe in women compared to men. Despite that, treatment seeking for STI among women is poor. Woman empowerment and gender related factors may be playing a role for treatment seeking practice for STI. However, there are no studies that assess the association between these factors and treatment seeking practice for STI among married reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Therefore, this analysis was designed to explore this association in Ethiopia.

METHODS: This analysis used the 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS) data. The 2016 EDHS collected data about STI treatment seeking practice for STI among other variables. Data was analyzed using STATA 17.0. Sampling weights were applied to improve the representativeness of the samples. Descriptive statistics were computed to describe the characteristics of the women. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify the association between treatment seeking practice for STI and predictor variables. Multicollinearity was checked using variance inflation factors before running the multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: In this study, about 28% (95%CI: 20.87, 36.77) married reproductive age women with STI or STI symptoms sought treatment from the formal sector. Women whose husband attended secondary and higher education (AOR, 8.52; 95%CI 1.42, 51.21), and women with higher women empowerment scores (AOR 1.38, 95%CI 1.06, 1.81) had higher odds of treatment seeking for STI or STI symptoms. On the other hand, women who believe wife beating is justified had lower odds (AOR 0.32; 95%CI 0.15, 0.68) of treatment seeking for STI or STI symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment seeking practice for STI among married reproductive age women in Ethiopia is low. The Ministry of Health and development partners shall conduct further research to identify barriers for treatment seeking practice. Gender variables (women empowerment and belief that wife beating is justified) were significantly associated with STI treatment seeking practice among married reproductive age women. STI prevention and control strategies shall include women empowerment and gender issues as essential component in STI prevention, treatment, and control activities.

PMID:38910255 | DOI:10.1186/s12879-024-09535-2

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Social deprivation and spatial clustering of childhood asthma in Australia

Glob Health Res Policy. 2024 Jun 24;9(1):22. doi: 10.1186/s41256-024-00361-2.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory illness among children in Australia. While childhood asthma prevalence varies by region, little is known about variations at the small geographic area level. Identifying small geographic area variations in asthma is critical for highlighting hotspots for targeted interventions. This study aimed to investigate small area-level variation, spatial clustering, and sociodemographic risk factors associated with childhood asthma prevalence in Australia.

METHODS: Data on self-reported (by parent/carer) asthma prevalence in children aged 0-14 years at statistical area level 2 (SA2, small geographic area) and selected sociodemographic features were extracted from the national Australian Household and Population Census 2021. A spatial cluster analysis was used to detect hotspots (i.e., areas and their neighbours with higher asthma prevalence than the entire study area average) of asthma prevalence. We also used a spatial Bayesian Poisson model to examine the relationship between sociodemographic features and asthma prevalence. All analyses were performed at the SA2 level.

RESULTS: Data were analysed from 4,621,716 children aged 0-14 years from 2,321 SA2s across the whole country. Overall, children’s asthma prevalence was 6.27%, ranging from 0 to 16.5%, with significant hotspots of asthma prevalence in areas of greater socioeconomic disadvantage. Socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had significantly higher asthma prevalence than advantaged areas (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.10, 95% credible interval [CrI] 1.06-1.14). Higher asthma prevalence was observed in areas with a higher proportion of Indigenous individuals (PR = 1.13, 95% CrI 1.10-1.17).

CONCLUSIONS: We identified significant geographic variation in asthma prevalence and sociodemographic predictors associated with the variation, which may help in designing targeted asthma management strategies and considerations for service enhancement for children in socially deprived areas.

PMID:38910250 | DOI:10.1186/s41256-024-00361-2

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Mapping and predicting open defecation in Ethiopia: 2021 PMA-ET study

BMC Public Health. 2024 Jun 23;24(1):1671. doi: 10.1186/s12889-024-19222-1.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There has been extensive research conducted on open defecation in Ethiopia, but a notable gap persists in comprehensively understanding the spatial variation and predictors at the household level. This study utilizes data from the 2021 Performance Monitoring for Action Ethiopia (PMA-ET) to address this gap by identifying hotspots and predictors of open defecation. Employing geographically weighted regression analysis, it goes beyond traditional models to account for spatial heterogeneity, offering a nuanced understanding of geographical variations in open defecation prevalence and its determinants. This research pinpoints hotspot areas and significant predictors, aiding policymakers and practitioners in tailoring interventions effectively. It not only fills the knowledge gap in Ethiopia but also informs global sanitation initiatives.

METHODS: The study comprised a total weighted sample of 24,747 household participants. ArcGIS version 10.7 and SaT Scan version 9.6 were used to handle mapping, hotspots, ordinary least squares, Bernoulli model analysis, and Spatial regression. Bernoulli-based model was used to analyze the purely spatial cluster detection of open defecation at the household level in Ethiopia. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) analysis and geographically weighted regression analysis were employed to assess the association between an open defecation and explanatory variables.

RESULTS: The spatial distribution of open defecation at the household level exhibited clustering (global Moran’s I index value of 4.540385, coupled with a p-value of less than 0.001), with significant hotspots identified in Amhara, Afar, Harari, and parts of Dire Dawa. Spatial analysis using Kuldorff’s Scan identified six clusters, with four showing statistical significance (P-value < 0.05) in Amhara, Afar, Harari, Tigray, and southwest Ethiopia. In the geographically weighted regression model, being male [coefficient = 0.87, P-value < 0.05] and having no media exposure (not watching TV or listening to the radio) [coefficient = 0.47, P-value < 0.05] emerged as statistically significant predictors of household-level open defecation in Ethiopia.

CONCLUSION: The study revealed that open defecation at the household level in Ethiopia varies across the regions, with significant hotspots identified in Amhara, Afar, Harari, and parts of Dire Dawa. Geographically weighted regression analysis highlights male participants lacking media exposure as substantial predictors of open defecation. Targeted interventions in Ethiopia should improve media exposure among males in hotspot regions, tailored sanitation programs, and region-specific awareness campaigns. Collaboration with local communities is crucial.

PMID:38910246 | DOI:10.1186/s12889-024-19222-1

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Mortality in clostridioides difficile infection among patients hospitalized at the university clinical hospital in Wroclaw, Poland – a 3-year observational study

BMC Infect Dis. 2024 Jun 23;24(1):625. doi: 10.1186/s12879-024-09495-7.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the last two decades, a significant increase in the number of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) cases has been observed. It is understandable to attempt to determine the factors that can predict the severity of the course of the infection and identify patients at risk of death. This study aimed to analyze the factors affecting the incidence and mortality of CDI in inpatient treatment at the University Clinical Hospital in Wrocław in 2016-2018.

METHODS: Statistical analysis of data obtained from patients’ medical records was performed. Only patients with symptoms of infection and infection confirmed by laboratory tests were enrolled in the study. When analyzing the number of deaths, only adult patients who died in hospital wards were included. The quantitative data including laboratory tests, used antibiotics and Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) were assessed. Also, the qualitative data such as sex, year of hospitalization, occurrence of diarrhoea on admission to the hospital, presence of additional diseases, as wee ad the use of antibacterial drugs or proton pump blockers and ranitidine during hospitalization were analyzed.

RESULTS: A total of 319 adult CDI patients (178 women and 141 men) were enrolled of which 80 people died (50 women and 30 men). The mean age of the patients was 72.08 ± 16.74 years. Over the entire period studied, the morbidity was 174 cases per 100,000 hospitalizations while mortality was 25.08%. The group of deceased patients was characterized by: older age (by 9.24 years), longer duration of hospitalization (by 10 days), reduced albumin levels (Rho = -0.235, p < 0.001), higher urea levels, use of more antibiotics, higher risk of malnutrition in NRS (Rho = 0.219, p < 0.001), higher incidence of sepsis, heart failure, stroke, hypothyroidism. Pneumonia was diagnosed twice as often. It was also shown that deceased patients were significantly more likely to take penicillin and fluoroquinolones.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the morbidity was lower, but mortality was higher compared to similar hospitals in Poland. CDI patients were characterized by older age, multimorbidity, extended hospitalization, and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Risk factors for death included advanced age, prolonged hospital stays, lower albumin, higher urea, malnutrition, and comorbidities like heart failure, stroke, pneumonia, sepsis, and hypothyroidism. Increased antibiotic use, particularly penicillin and fluoroquinolones, was associated with a higher mortality risk.

PMID:38910242 | DOI:10.1186/s12879-024-09495-7

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Association between time to surgery and hospital mortality in patients with community-acquired limb necrotizing fasciitis: an 11-year multicenter retrospective cohort analysis

BMC Infect Dis. 2024 Jun 23;24(1):624. doi: 10.1186/s12879-024-09501-y.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare but potentially life-threatening soft tissue infection. The objective of this study was to assess the association between timely surgery within 6 h and hospital mortality in patients with limb NF, and to describe the trends in patients with NF, time to surgery and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) over 11 years.

METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of all intensive care unit patients who had emergency surgery within 24 h of hospitalization for limb NF between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2019 in Hong Kong. Timely surgery was defined as the first surgical treatment within 6 h of initial hospitalization. Appropriate antibiotics were achieved if the patient was given antibiotic(s) for all documented pathogens prior to or on day of culture results. The primary outcome was hospital mortality.

RESULTS: There were 495 patients (median age 62 years, 349 (70.5%) males) with limb NF treated by surgery within 24 h of hospitalization over the 11 years. Appropriate antibiotic(s) were used in 392 (79.2%) patients. There were 181 (36.5%) deaths. Timely surgery was not associated with hospital mortality (Relative Risk 0.89, 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.07) but admission year, advanced age, higher severity of illness, comorbidities, renal replacement therapy, vasopressor use, and type of surgery were significant predictors in the multivariable model. There was an upward trend in NF diagnosis (1.9 cases/year, 95% CI: 0.7 to 3.1; P < 0.01; R2 = 0.60) but there was no downward trend in median time to surgery (-0.2 h/year, 95% CI: -0.4 to 0.1; P = 0.16) or SMR (-0.02/year, 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.01; P = 0.22; R2 = 0.16).

CONCLUSIONS: Among patients operated within 24 h, very early surgery within 6-12 h was not associated with survival. Increasing limb NF cases were reported each year but mortality remained high despite a high rate of appropriate antibiotic use and timely surgical intervention.

PMID:38910240 | DOI:10.1186/s12879-024-09501-y

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Correction: Assessment of fever screening at airports in detecting domestic passengers infected with SARS-CoV-2, 2020-2022, Okinawa prefecture, Japan

BMC Infect Dis. 2024 Jun 23;24(1):621. doi: 10.1186/s12879-024-09533-4.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:38910239 | DOI:10.1186/s12879-024-09533-4

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Long-term health outcomes by cancer diagnosed age among adolescent and young adult: multinational representative database

BMC Med. 2024 Jun 24;22(1):260. doi: 10.1186/s12916-024-03488-8.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cancer experienced in adolescent and young adult (AYA) could disturb developmental changes and long-term life. The current AYA guidelines and research for survivorship were developed and reported according to the general age range of 15-39 years; however, expected life events vary by diagnosed age. We aimed to examine the social, psychological, and physical well-being of AYA cancer survivors by age at diagnosis using a multinational representative dataset focusing on age at diagnosis.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using the US and Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2007 to 2018. Participants diagnosed with any cancer aged 15-39 years and were aged > 18 years at the survey year were defined as AYA cancer survivors. AYA were classified into three groups based on their diagnosed age: adolescent survivors (diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 19, n = 45), young adult survivors (diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 29, n = 238), and late young adult survivors (diagnosed between the ages of 30 and 39, n = 539). We also selected an age-, sex-, race-, and survey year-matched general population with 1:5 ratio among participants without cancer (N = 4110).

RESULTS: The average age of the survey was 29.1, 43.7, and 48.7 years for AYA survivors diagnosed during adolescence, young adulthood, and late young adulthood, respectively. Adolescent survivors had more non-couple marital status (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10-1.64) and unemployed (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.61) compared to late young adult survivors. Comparing with the matched general, adolescent survivors were more in poor general health (aOR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.09-10.38) and unemployed (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.12-4.24) and late young adult survivors were more non-couple (aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.05-1.86).

CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for future studies on long-term health, which may vary according to age at the time of diagnosis among AYA with cancer.

PMID:38910233 | DOI:10.1186/s12916-024-03488-8

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Characterizing genetic diversity of Sclerotium rolfsii isolates by biomapping of mycelial compatibility groupings and multilocus sequence analysis

World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2024 Jun 24;40(8):251. doi: 10.1007/s11274-024-04049-0.

ABSTRACT

Genetic diversity in Sclerotium rolfsii is useful for understanding its population structure, identifying different mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs), and developing targeted strategies for disease management in affected crops. In our study, a comprehensive genetic analysis was conducted on 50 isolates of S. rolfsii, collected from various geographic regions and host plants. Two specific genes, TEF1α and RPB2, were utilized to assess the genetic diversity and relationships among these isolates. Notably, out of 1225 pairings examined, only 154 exhibited a compatible reaction, while the majority displayed antagonistic reactions, resulting in the formation of a barrier zone. The isolates were grouped into 10 distinct MCGs. These MCGs were further characterized using genetic sequencing. TEF1α sequences distinguished the isolates into 17 distinct clusters, and RPB2 sequences classified them into 20 clusters. Some MCGs shared identical gene sequences within each gene, while others exhibited unique sequences. Intriguingly, when both TEF1α and RPB2 sequences were combined, all 10 MCGs were effectively differentiated, even those that appeared identical with single-gene analysis. This combined approach provided a comprehensive understanding of the genetic diversity and relationships among the S. rolfsii isolates, allowing for precise discrimination between different MCGs. The results shed light on the population structure and genetic variability within this plant pathogenic fungus, providing valuable insights for disease management and control strategies. This study highlights the significance of comprehending the varied virulence characteristics within S. rolfsii isolates, categorizing them into specific virulence groups based on disease severity index (DSI) values. The association with MCGs provides additional insights into the genetic underpinnings of virulence in this pathogen. Furthermore, the identification of geographical patterns in virulence implies the influence of region-specific factors, with potential implications for disease control and crop protection strategies.Please confirm if the author names are presented accurately and in the correct sequence (given name, middle name/initial, family name). Author 1 Given name: [G. M. Sandeep] Last name [Kumar]. Author 2 Given name: [Praveen Kumar] Last name [Singh]. Also, kindly confirm the details in the metadata are correct.I confirm that the given names are accurate and presented in the correct sequence.

PMID:38910228 | DOI:10.1007/s11274-024-04049-0