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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Transport of pseudothermal photons through an anharmonic cavity

Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8328. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-87536-w.

ABSTRACT

Under nonequilibrium conditions, quantum optical systems reveal unusual properties that might be distinct from those in condensed matter. The fundamental reason is that photonic eigenstates can have arbitrary occupation numbers, whereas in electronic systems these are limited by the Pauli principle. Here, we address the steady-state transport of pseudothermal photons between two waveguides connected through a cavity with Bose-Hubbard interaction between photons. One of the waveguides is subjected to a broadband incoherent pumping. We predict a continuous transition between the regimes of Lorentzian and Gaussian chaotic light emitted by the cavity. The rich variety of nonequilibrium transport regimes is revealed by the zero-frequency noise. There are three limiting cases, in which the noise-current relation is characterized by a power-law, [Formula: see text]. The Lorentzian light corresponds to Breit-Wigner-like transmission and [Formula: see text]. The Gaussian regime corresponds to many-body transport with the shot noise ([Formula: see text]) at large currents; at low currents, however, we find an unconventional exponent [Formula: see text] indicating a nontrivial interplay between multi-photon transitions and incoherent pumping. The nonperturbative solution for photon dephasing is obtained in the framework of the Keldysh field theory and Caldeira-Leggett effective action. These findings might be relevant for experiments on photon blockade in superconducting qubits, thermal states transfer, and photon statistics probing.

PMID:33859246 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-87536-w

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

A unified survival-analysis approach to insect population development and survival times

Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8223. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-87264-1.

ABSTRACT

There are two major categories of observation data in studying time-dependent processes: one is the time-series data, and the other is the perhaps lesser-recognized but similarly prevalent time-to-event data (also known as survival or failure time). Examples in entomology include molting times and death times of insects, waiting times of predators before the next attack or the hiding times of preys. A particular challenge in analyzing time-to-event data is the observation censoring, or the incomplete observation of survival times, dealing which is a unique advantage of survival analysis statistics. Even with a perfectly designed experiment being conducted perfectly, such ‘naturally’ censoring may still be unavoidable due to the natural processes, including the premature death in the observation of insect development, the variability in instarship, or simply the continuous nature of time process and the discrete nature of sampling intervals. Here we propose to apply the classic Cox proportional hazards model for modeling both insect development and survival rates (probabilities) with a unified survival analysis approach. We demonstrated the advantages of the proposed approach with the development and survival datasets of 1800 Russian wheat aphids from their births to deaths, observed under 25 laboratory treatments of temperatures and plant growth stages.

PMID:33859237 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-87264-1

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Obesity-related proteins score as a potential marker of breast cancer risk

Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8230. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-87583-3.

ABSTRACT

There is strong evidence to suggest that obesity-related proteins play a key role in pathways that are related to breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to establish a robust obesity-related protein score (ORPS) that could be used to assess breast cancer risk. Based on evidence from high-quality systematic reviews and population studies, we selected nine such proteins that are stable in vitro, and measured their circulating concentrations by ELISA in a case-control study conducted in Chengdu, Sichuan, China, with 279 breast cancer cases and 260 healthy controls. Two obesity-related protein scores (ORPS) were calculated using a three-step method, with linear-weighted summation, and the one with a larger area under the curve was chosen for further evaluation. As a result, ORPS (PS5pre or PS4post) was positively correlated with breast cancer risk (premenopausal: OR≤63 VS >63 3.696, 95% CI 2.025-6.747; postmenopausal: OR≤38 VS >38 7.100, 95% CI 3.134-16.084), and represented a better risk predictor among obese women compared to non-obese in pre- and postmenopausal women. Among different molecular subtypes, ORPS was positively correlated with Luminal breast cancer, with additionally positive association with triple-negative breast cancer in premenopausal women. The ORPS might be a potential marker of breast cancer risk among Chinese women.

PMID:33859244 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-87583-3

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

EX-vivo whole blood stimulation with A2E does not elicit an inflammatory cytokine response in patients with age-related macular degeneration

Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8226. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-87337-1.

ABSTRACT

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a highly prevalent degenerative disease and a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Evidence for an inflammatory component in the development of AMD exists, yet the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Bisretinoid N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) in retinal pigmental epithelial (RPE) cells, and in extracellular deposits constitutes a hallmark of AMD, but its role in the pathology of AMD is elusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that A2E is responsible for the heightened inflammatory activity in AMD. To this end, we measured ex vivo mRNA expression of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in whole blood samples after stimulation with A2E in a clinical sample of 27 patients with neovascular AMD and 24 patients with geographic atrophy secondary to AMD. Patients’ spouses (n = 30) were included as non-affected controls. After stimulation with A2E, no statistical differences were found in the median expression level of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 between the control group, and the neovascular AMD and the geographic atrophy group. Our findings do not support evidence for the hypothesis, that A2E per se contributes to heightened inflammatory activity in AMD.

PMID:33859228 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-87337-1

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

User satisfaction with telephonic consultations carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2021 Apr 16;95:e202104054.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To face the COVID-19 pandemic, our intensive care and hospitalization units were expanded, surgical activity was limited to urgent and non-delayed procedures and teleconsultations were increased in order to minimize face-to-face consultations. The objective of this work was to learn users’ satisfaction with teleconsultations performed during the pandemic as well as its benefits, applications and areas for improvement.

METHODS: Cross-sectional study through a questionnaire with 26 closed questions and 5 open ones, grouped in 9 dimensions: patient characteristics; the query; treatment; utility; resolution; security; satisfaction; face-to-face modality and opportunities for improvement. Necessary sample size: 307 (confidence: 95%; error: 3%; expected satisfaction: 92%). Definitive sample: 352. Stratified random sampling by specialty. Period: March 16th-May 25th 2020. The statistical analysis was done with the statistical program SPSS vs.27.0. 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Statistical significance was established at p<0.05.

RESULTS: Patient profile: age 54 (SD: 18.6) years; 213 (60.5%) women. Calls made by doctors (298; 84.7%) and nurses (15; 4.3%); 342 (97.2%) attended at home. Reasons: follow-up (223; 63.4%); first consultation (45; 12.8%); result’s report (23; 6.5%) and manage an appointment (50; 14.2%). 29 (8.62%) were directed to another center. 335 (95.44%; 95% CI: 93.26%-97.62%) patients were satisfied and 309 (91.96%; 95% CI: 89.06%-94.87%) would recommend them. 351 (99.72%; 95% CI: 99.16%-99.99%) felt they were treated with kindness; 336 (95.96%; 95% CI: 93.81%-98.11%) considered sufficient care; 309 (95.96%; 95% CI: 93.81%-98.11%) were able to solve doubts; 311 (96.58%; 95% CI: 94.60%-98.57%) calmed down; for 245 (69.6%; 95% CI: 65.98%-74.67%) it was as useful as the face-to-face session; equally safe (240; 69.57%; 95% CI: 64.71%-74.42%) and beneficial (338; 96.02%; 95% CI: 94.25%-98.26%).

CONCLUSIONS: The high satisfaction expressed by users, the benefits verified and the high resolution of the teleconsultations, makes us consider expanding these services after the pandemic.

PMID:33859157

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Diet and gut microbiome enterotype are associated at the population level in African buffalo

Nat Commun. 2021 Apr 15;12(1):2267. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22510-8.

ABSTRACT

Studies in humans and laboratory animals link stable gut microbiome “enterotypes” with long-term diet and host health. Understanding how this paradigm manifests in wild herbivores could provide a mechanistic explanation of the relationships between microbiome dynamics, changes in dietary resources, and outcomes for host health. We identify two putative enterotypes in the African buffalo gut microbiome. The enterotype prevalent under resource-abundant dietary regimes, regardless of environmental conditions, has high richness, low between- and within-host beta diversity, and enrichment of genus Ruminococcaceae-UCG-005. The second enterotype, prevalent under restricted dietary conditions, has reduced richness, elevated beta diversity, and enrichment of genus Solibacillus. Population-level gamma diversity is maintained during resource restriction by increased beta diversity between individuals, suggesting a mechanism for population-level microbiome resilience. We identify three pathogens associated with microbiome variation depending on host diet, indicating that nutritional background may impact microbiome-pathogen dynamics. Overall, this study reveals diet-driven enterotype plasticity, illustrates ecological processes that maintain microbiome diversity, and identifies potential associations between diet, enterotype, and disease.

PMID:33859184 | DOI:10.1038/s41467-021-22510-8

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Optimising assessment of dark adaptation data using time to event analysis

Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8323. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86193-3.

ABSTRACT

In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) research, dark adaptation has been found to be a promising functional measurement. In more severe cases of AMD, dark adaptation cannot always be recorded within a maximum allowed time for the test (~ 20-30 min). These data are recorded either as censored data-points (data capped at the maximum test time) or as an estimated recovery time based on the trend observed from the data recorded within the maximum recording time. Therefore, dark adaptation data can have unusual attributes that may not be handled by standard statistical techniques. Here we show time-to-event analysis is a more powerful method for analysis of rod-intercept time data in measuring dark adaptation. For example, at 80% power (at α = 0.05) sample sizes were estimated to be 20 and 61 with uncapped (uncensored) and capped (censored) data using a standard t-test; these values improved to 12 and 38 when using the proposed time-to-event analysis. Our method can accommodate both skewed data and censored data points and offers the advantage of significantly reducing sample sizes when planning studies where this functional test is an outcome measure. The latter is important because designing trials and studies more efficiently equates to newer treatments likely being examined more efficiently.

PMID:33859209 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-86193-3

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Real Time Monitoring During Cochlear Implantation: Increasing the Accuracy of Predicting Residual Hearing Outcomes

Otol Neurotol. 2021 Apr 14. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003177. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Real-time electrocochleography (rt-ECochG) is a method to detect intracochlear potential changes during cochlear implantation (CI). Steep amplitude drops of the cochlear microphonic (CM) signal (so called “ECochG events”) have been correlated with worse residual hearing outcomes. However, the sensitivity and specificity of monitoring CM amplitude on its own are too low to use it as a biomarker. The aim of this article was to establish if additional signal components would help to better predict postoperative hearing outcomes.

DESIGN AND SETTING: Single-center, prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral hospital.

PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Between 2017 and 2020, we included 73 adult patients receiving a lateral wall cochlear implant electrode. During electrode insertion, rt-ECochG measurements were performed.

MAIN OUTCOMES: We calculated a multiple regression analysis for patients with one ECochG event. The dependant variable was the relative acoustic hearing result 4 weeks after surgery. Independent variables were CM latency, a ratio of the auditory nerve neurophonic to the CM (the ANN/CM index) as well as CM signal recovery.

RESULTS: The change of the ANN/CM index linearly correlated with acoustic hearing outcomes 4 weeks after surgery. Adding this factor led to a statistically significant increase in the variance accounted for by the regression model.

CONCLUSIONS: When monitoring the implantation process with rt-ECochG, prediction of postoperative hearing thresholds is improved by addition of the ANN/CM index to a model that includes CM amplitude fluctuation.

PMID:33859138 | DOI:10.1097/MAO.0000000000003177

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Pharmacokinetics of Single Dose Lidocaine and Epinephrine Following Iontophoresis of the Tympanic Membrane in a Double-Blinded Randomized Trial

Otol Neurotol. 2021 Apr 14. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003128. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate local and systemic safety of bilateral iontophoretic administration of lidocaine with epinephrine or lidocaine alone to the tympanic membrane (TM).

STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, two-arm study was conducted at a single center. Healthy adults were randomized to bilateral iontophoretic treatment with 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine, or 2% lidocaine (control). Otoscopy, cranial nerve examination, tympanometry, and audiometry safety evaluations were conducted before and 3-days post-procedure. Systemic safety was evaluated via analysis of vital signs taken before and up to 120 minutes post-iontophoresis, and blood samples collected before and up to 230 minutes post-iontophoresis.

RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects were treated with bilateral iontophoresis of either lidocaine and epinephrine (n = 15 subjects) or lidocaine alone (n = 10). Mean plasma epinephrine concentrations for both groups remained within the normal range for endogenous epinephrine. Mean plasma concentrations of lidocaine were not statistically different between groups, ranging from 0.245 to 2.28 ng/ml after administration of lidocaine with epinephrine (immediate post-iontophoresis to 230 min post-iontophoresis), compared with 1.35 to 2.14 ng/ml after administration of lidocaine alone. The presence of epinephrine slowed the systemic absorption of lidocaine. Lidocaine levels (Cmax 2.24 ng/ml) were approximately 2000-fold lower than the threshold for minor lidocaine toxicity. No device-, procedure- or drug-related adverse events were reported.

CONCLUSION: The local and systemic safety of bilateral iontophoretic delivery of 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine to the TM was demonstrated by low plasma levels of drug and absence of both serious and non-serious device-, procedure-, or drug-related adverse events.

PMID:33859140 | DOI:10.1097/MAO.0000000000003128

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Does Nurse Preceptor Role Frequency Make a Difference in Preceptor Job Satisfaction?

J Nurses Prof Dev. 2021 Apr 12. doi: 10.1097/NND.0000000000000740. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

This study identified nurse preceptor role frequency to newly licensed registered nurses and how it made a difference to the preceptors’ job satisfaction. Statistical analysis revealed there was no difference in job satisfaction in preceptors who performed in the role one to four times than those who served five times or more, F(4, 124) = 0.261, p > .05. The study found variation in preceptor role preparation and differing registered nurse practice experience prior to performing as a preceptor.

PMID:33859098 | DOI:10.1097/NND.0000000000000740