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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Geographical disparities in access to surgical treatment and mortality rates from abdominal aortic aneurysms in Brazil: A retrospective longitudinal study

Vasc Med. 2024 Jun 11:1358863X241253732. doi: 10.1177/1358863X241253732. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a growing public health problem, and not all patients have access to surgery when needed. This study aimed to analyze spatiotemporal variations in AAA mortality and surgical procedures in Brazilian intermediate geographic regions and explore the impact of different surgical techniques on operative mortality.

METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate AAA mortality from 2008 to 2020 using space-time cube (STC) analysis and the emerging hot spot analysis tool through the Getis-Ord Gi* method.

RESULTS: There were 34,255 deaths due to AAA, 13,075 surgeries to repair AAA, and a surgical mortality of 14.92%. STC analysis revealed an increase in AAA mortality rates (trend statistic = +1.7693, p = 0.0769) and a significant reduction in AAA surgery rates (trend statistic = -3.8436, p = 0.0001). Analysis of emerging hotspots revealed high AAA mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West, with a reduction in procedures in São Paulo and Minas Gerais States (Southeast). In the Northeast, there were extensive areas of increasing mortality rates and decreasing procedure rates (cold spots).

CONCLUSION: AAA mortality increased in several regions of the country while surgery rates decreased, demonstrating the need for implementing public health policies to increase the availability of surgical procedures, particularly in less developed regions with limited access to services.

PMID:38860442 | DOI:10.1177/1358863X241253732

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High Frequency of Ancestral Haplotype A of Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in the Yakut Population

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2024 Jun 11. doi: 10.1089/gtmb.2024.0085. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Aims: The purpose of this study was to study the correlation of the body weight of Yakuts with the variability of polymorphisms rs174537, rs174546 and rs3834458 of the FADS1 – FADS2 region to identify the connection of certain genotypes with obesity. Materials and Methods: For genotyping, classical methods of PCR-RFLP analysis were used. A sample of 446 DNA samples from Yakut volunteers without chronic diseases (143 women and 303 men) was studied. Results: The predominance of the ancestral alleles of SNPs rs174537, rs174546 and rs3834458 was established in all of our studied groups. Analysis of the odds ratio of allele and genotype frequencies in patients with normal BMI, high BMI and obesity did not show statistically significant values. We did not find an association between rs174537, rs174546 and rs3834458 with obesity, but we did not take into account the diet of the subjects, which may have had a stronger effect on BMI. Analysis of pairwise linkage disequilibrium and assessment of haplotypes for 3 SNPs in the FADS1 and FADS2 genes showed strong linkage of all three SNPs to each other (r2 = 0.93-0.96). Conclusions: According to the result of genotyping of SNP rs174537, the frequency of haplotype A in the Yakut population was 0.76 and, in comparison with other world data, is quite high. Which in turn is associated with lower conversion of short-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. Accordingly, a shift in nutrition towards more plant foods can negatively impact the health of the Yakuts. At the moment, the exact dosage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for humans has not yet been established, but judging by the fact that all recommendations are mainly made on the basis of European populations, in connection with the results of the study, the Yakuts have a particularly high need for PUFAs.

PMID:38860387 | DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2024.0085

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The Impact of Sex on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Thromboprophylaxis in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Post-revascularization

Ann Surg. 2024 Jun 11. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000006375. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to 1) objectively quantify the impact of sex on platelet function in patients with PAD taking antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications and 2) to develop and test a personalized, iterative algorithm which personalizes thromboprophylaxis that incorporates platelet function testing.

SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Women with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) have worse outcomes as compared to their male counterparts in spite of having lower risk factors. This health disparity may be mitigated by personalizing thromboprophylaxis regimens.

METHODS: Patients undergoing revascularization were enrolled. Serial thromboelastography (TEG) and TEG with Platelet Mapping (TEG-PM) was performed up to 6-months post-operatively to determine objective coagulation profiles. In a subset of patients, the Antiplatelet Coagulation Exactness (ACE) algorithm was implemented where patients were iteratively evaluated with TEG and given antiplatelet medications to maintain platelet inhibition at >29%. Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test.

RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-one patients met study criteria. 58(32%) patients were females and 123(68%) were males. In the Aspirin cohort, females showed significantly greater clot strength as Maximum Amplitude – Arachidonic Acid (MAAA) and significantly lower platelet inhibition than males: [37.26 vs.32.38, P<0.01] and [52.95% vs.61.65%, P<0.05], respectively. In the Clopidogrel cohort, females showed higher Maximum Amplitude – Adenosine Diphosphate (MAADP) [42.58 vs.40.35, P=NS] compared to males. Females on dual antiplatelet therapy had higher MAADP [39.74 vs.35.07, P=NS] and lower platelet inhibition [45.25% vs.54.99%, P=NS] than males. The incidence of thrombosis of the revascularized segment, defined as thrombotic event, was objectively identified on an arterial duplex. Women showed significantly higher thrombotic events than men [22.95% vs.10.57%, P<0.05] on the same medication. In our pilot study, implementation of the ACE algorithm led to a significant decrease in the thrombosis rate (3%), including non-thrombotic events for females, vs. the historic thrombotic rate (22%) from our institution.

CONCLUSIONS: Women with PAD exhibited higher platelet reactivity, clot strength, and reduced platelet inhibition in response to antiplatelet therapy. The use of the ACE algorithm to tailor antiplatelet medication in patients with PAD post-revascularization, resulted in a significant decrease in thrombotic event rates. This may serve as an opportune way to mitigate outcome sex-specific disparities caused by inadequate thromboprophylaxis in women.

PMID:38860382 | DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000006375

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Comparison of the Ability of Gadobenate Dimeglumine and Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl Dimeglumine to Display the major Features for Noninvasively Diagnosing Hepatocellular Carcinoma According to the LI-RADS 2018v

Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2024 Jan-Dec;23:15330338241260331. doi: 10.1177/15330338241260331.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl dimeglumine (Gd-EOB-DTPA) and gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) to display the 3 major features recommended by the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS 2018v) for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 98 HCC lesions that were scanned with either Gd-EOB-DTPA-MR or Gd-BOPTA-M.For each lesion, we collected multiple variables, including size and enhancement pattern in the arterial phase (AP), portal venous phase (PVP), transitional phase (TP), delayed phase (DP), and hepatobiliary phase (HBP). The lesion-to-liver contrast (LLC) was measured and calculated for each phase and then compared between the 2 contrast agents. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. The display efficiency of the LLC between Gd-BOPTA and Gd-EOB-DTPA for HCC features was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

RESULTS: Between Gd-BOPTA and Gd-EOB-DTPA, significant differences were observed regarding the display efficiency for capsule enhancement and the LLC in the AP/PVP/DP (P < .05), but there was no significant difference regarding the LLC in the TP/HBP. Both Gd-BOPTA and Gd-EOB-DTPA had good display efficiency in each phase (AUCmin > 0.750). When conducting a total evaluation of the combined data across the 5 phases, the display efficiency was excellent (AUC > 0.950).

CONCLUSION: Gd-BOPTA and Gd-EOB-DTPA are liver-specific contrast agents widely used in clinical practice. They have their own characteristics in displaying the 3 main signs of HCC. For accurate noninvasive diagnosis, the choice of agent should be made according to the specific situation.

PMID:38860337 | DOI:10.1177/15330338241260331

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Contralateral renal change in a unilateral ureteral obstruction rat model using intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging

Ren Fail. 2024 Dec;46(2):2359642. doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2024.2359642. Epub 2024 Jun 11.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most functional magnetic resonance research has primarily examined alterations in the affected kidney, often neglecting the contralateral kidney. Our study aims to investigate whether imaging parameters accurately depict changes in both the renal cortex and medulla in a unilateral ureteral obstruction rat model, thereby showcasing the utility of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in evaluating contralateral renal changes.

METHODS: Six rats underwent MR scans and were subsequently sacrificed for baseline histological examination. Following the induction of left ureteral obstruction, 48 rats were scanned, and the histopathological examinations were conducted on days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure molecular diffusion (D), pseudodiffusion (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) values were measured using IVIM.

RESULTS: On the 10th day of obstruction, both cortical and medullary ADC values differed significantly between the UUO10 group and the sham group (p < 0.01). The cortical D values showed statistically significant differences between UUO3 group and sham group (p < 0.01) but not among UUO groups at other time point. Additionally, the cortical and medullary f values were statistically significant between the UUO21 group and the sham group (p < 0.01). Especially, the cortical f values exhibited significant differences between the UUO21 group and the UUO groups with shorter obstruction time (at time point of 3, 7, 10, 14 day) (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Significant hemodynamic alterations were observed in the contralateral kidney following renal obstruction. IVIM accurately captures changes in the unobstructed kidney. Particularly, the cortical f value exhibits the highest potential for assessing contralateral renal modifications.

PMID:38860328 | DOI:10.1080/0886022X.2024.2359642

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Preoperative Oral Carbohydrates for Children: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

Biol Res Nurs. 2024 Jun 11:10998004241253536. doi: 10.1177/10998004241253536. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Many studies have reported the use of preoperative oral carbohydrates (CHO) in children, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness and safety of oral CHO administration in children prior to surgery, with the goal of offering a dependable reference for clinical nursing practices and surgical interventions. Methods: Two authors searched PubMed, Clinical trials, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang and Weipu databases for randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of preoperative oral CHO in children up to April 12, 2024. We used RevMan 5.4 software for data analysis. Results: Nine RCTs involving a total of 1279 children were included. The meta-analysis showed that there was statistical difference in the pH of gastric juice (MD = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.40-1.67, p < .001), intraoperative sedation score (MD = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.27-0.97, p < .001), and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (OR = 0.40, 95%CI: 0.20-0.80, p = .009) between the CHO and control groups. There was no statistical difference in the RGV (MD = -0.23, 95%CI: -0.47-0.01, p = .06) and the postoperative blood glucose level (MD = -0.91, 95%CI: -5.03-3.21, p = .67) between the CHO and control groups. Egger regression analysis showed that there were no publication biases amongst the synthesized outcomes (all p > .05). Conclusion: The administration of oral CHO to children before surgery is safe and practicable. There is a need for additional, well-conducted studies with more participants to further elucidate the role of preoperative CHO administration.

PMID:38860320 | DOI:10.1177/10998004241253536

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A Qualitative Review of the Air Rescue One Rural Search and Rescue Program in British Columbia, Canada

Wilderness Environ Med. 2024 Jun 11:10806032241258425. doi: 10.1177/10806032241258425. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Rural emergency prehospital care in British Columbia is conducted primarily by the British Columbia Ambulance Services or ground search and rescue volunteers. Since 2014, the volunteer Air Rescue One (AR1) program has provided helicopter emergency winch rescue services to rural British Columbia. The aim of this research was to describe the activity of the AR1 program and to make recommendations to improve future operations.

METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from September 2014 to May 2021, and parameters of emergency callout statistics from the organization’s standard operating guidelines, rescue reports, and interviews were summarized and reviewed.

RESULTS: Of 152 missions within the study period, 105 were medically related rescues involving trauma or cardiac events. Snowmobiling, mountain biking, and hiking were the most common activities requiring rescue. The 38 medical callouts that were not completed by AR1 were reviewed for contributing factors. Response time varied due to the vast service area, but median time from request to takeoff was 55 min (interquartile range 47-69 min), and median on-scene time was 21 min (interquartile range 11-33 min).

CONCLUSIONS: AR1 provides advanced medical care into British Columbia’s remote and difficult-to-access areas, minimizing delays in treatment and risk to patients and responders. Callout procedures should be streamlined enabling efficient AR1 activation. Collection of medical and flight information should be improved with standardized documentation, aiding in internal education and future research into the program’s impact on emergency prehospital care. Future directions for improvement of care include the possibility of introducing portable ultrasound technology.

PMID:38860317 | DOI:10.1177/10806032241258425

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Assessment of Nasal Aesthetic Parameters in Patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate – A Retrospective Study

Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2024 Jun 11:10556656241261908. doi: 10.1177/10556656241261908. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the deviating nasal cephalometric parameters of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) with a control group. The study also aims to correlate the deviating cephalometric parameters with two aesthetic scoring systems.

DESIGN: A retrospective study.

SETTING: Dental college and hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and extra oral photographs of 20 adult patients with repaired UCLP presenting for orthodontic treatment. 20 patients with age and type of malocclusion matched control were selected.

MAIN OUTCOME: The nasal cephalometric parameters of patients with UCLP and a control group were compared. The nasolabial region of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) was scored using Asher McDade Aesthetic Index (AMAI) and Cleft Aesthetic Rating Scale (CARS). The scoring was done by six different groups assessors to study their perception of the nasolabial region. Correlation between cephalometric parameters and the aesthetic scores was done.

RESULTS: The study found significant differences in nasal length (P = .003) and depth (P < .001) between UCLP and the non-cleft control group. In the aesthetic assessment, orthodontist gave the least scores, while layman group scored the highest. The CARS nose aesthetic scores showed statistically significant high, negative correlation with the nasal length (P = .01).

CONCLUSION: The cephalometric parameters and the aesthetic indices can be aid the orthodontists in the assessment of nasolabial aesthetics and additionally refer for further definitive rhinoplasty to improve the patient’s overall facial aesthetics.

PMID:38860313 | DOI:10.1177/10556656241261908

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Exploring the variation in associations between socioeconomic indicators and non-communicable diseases in the Tromsø Study: an algorithmic approach

Scand J Public Health. 2024 Jun 11:14034948241249519. doi: 10.1177/14034948241249519. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We contribute to the methodological literature on the assessment of health inequalities by applying an algorithmic approach to evaluate the capabilities of socioeconomic variables in predicting the prevalence of non-communicable diseases in a Norwegian health survey.

METHODS: We use data from the seventh survey of the population based Tromsø Study (2015-2016), including 11,074 women and 10,009 men aged 40 years and above. We apply the random forest algorithm to predict four non-communicable disease outcomes (heart attack, cancer, diabetes and stroke) based on information on a number of social root causes and health behaviours. We evaluate our results using the classification error, the mean decrease in accuracy, partial dependence statistics.

RESULTS: Results suggest that education, household income and occupation to a variable extent contribute to predicting non-communicable disease outcomes. Prediction misclassification ranges between 25.1% and 35.4% depending on the non-communicable diseases under study. Partial dependences reveal mostly expected health gradients, with some examples of complex functional relationships. Out-of-sample model validation shows that predictions translate to new data input.

CONCLUSIONS: Algorithmic modelling can provide additional empirical detail and metrics for evaluating heterogeneous inequalities in morbidity. The extent to which education, income and occupation contribute to predicting binary non-communicable disease outcomes depends on both non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic indicator. Partial dependences reveal that social gradients in non-communicable disease outcomes vary in shape between combinations of non-communicable disease outcome and socioeconomic status indicator. Misclassification rates highlight the extent of variation within socioeconomic groups, suggesting that future studies may improve predictive accuracy by exploring further subpopulation heterogeneity.

PMID:38860312 | DOI:10.1177/14034948241249519

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Performance of ChatGPT and Google Translate for Pediatric Discharge Instruction Translation

Pediatrics. 2024 Jun 11:e2023065573. doi: 10.1542/peds.2023-065573. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients who speak languages other than English face barriers to equitable healthcare delivery. Machine translation systems, including emerging large language models, have the potential to expand access to translation services, but their merits and limitations in clinical practice remain poorly defined. We aimed to assess the performance of Google Translate and ChatGPT for multilingual translation of pediatric discharge instructions.

METHODS: Twenty standardized discharge instructions for pediatric conditions were translated into Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, and Haitian Creole by professional translation services, Google Translate and ChatGPT-4.0, and evaluated for adequacy (preserved information), fluency (grammatical correctness), meaning (preserved connotation), and severity (clinical harm), along with assessment of overall preference. Domain-level ratings and preferred translation source were summarized with descriptive statistics and compared with professional translations.

RESULTS: Google Translate and ChatGPT demonstrated similar domain-level ratings to professional translations for Spanish and Portuguese. For Haitian Creole, compared with both Google Translate and ChatGPT, professional translations demonstrated significantly greater adequacy, fluency meaning, and severity scores. ChatGPT (33.3%, P < .001) and Google Translate (23.3%, P = .024) contained more potentially clinically significant errors (severity score ≤3) for Haitian Creole than professional translations (8.3%). Professional Haitian Creole (48.3%) and Portuguese (43.3%), but not Spanish (15%), translations were most frequently preferred among translation sources.

CONCLUSIONS: Machine translation platforms have comparable performance to professional translations for Spanish and Portuguese but shortcomings in quality, accuracy, and preference persist for Haitian Creole. Diverse multilingual training data are needed, along with regulations ensuring safe and equitable applications of machine translation in clinical practice.

PMID:38860299 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2023-065573