Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

The effect of self-efficacy on health literacy in the German population

Health Promot Int. 2021 Jun 11:daab085. doi: 10.1093/heapro/daab085. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Concerning the determinants of health literacy (HL) mostly socio-demographic or -economic factors have been considered, much less so psychological factors such as self-efficacy. To date, it has mostly been considered to explain the relationship of HL and health outcomes. However, self-efficacy could also be an important determinant for HL. This study therefore examines the effect of self-efficacy on comprehensive HL within the general population in Germany. Data from the German HL Survey (HLS-GER), a cross-sectional, computer-assisted personal interview study among 2000 respondents aged 15+ years in 2014 were used. Self-efficacy was measured using the German version of general self-efficacy short scale (ASKU), comprehensive HL was measured using the German version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47). Correlation and multi-variate linear regression analyses were performed to analyze independent effects of socio-demographic factors-age, gender, social status, educational level and migration background-functional HL and self-efficacy on comprehensive HL. Self-efficacy and comprehensive HL are statistically significantly correlated (Spearman’s Rho = 0.405; p < 0.01), respondents with better self-efficacy had better HL scores. Both concepts are significantly associated with most socio-demographic factors and functional HL. Self-efficacy showed the strongest association with HL in the multivariate analyses (model 2: β =0.310, p < 0.001). The effect size of the other predictors decreased, when adding self-efficacy into the equation, but remained statistically significant. Self-efficacy is a rather strong predictor of comprehensive HL. Future research and measures to improve HL should therefore take self-efficacy adequately into account.

PMID:34115848 | DOI:10.1093/heapro/daab085

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Identification of novel pleiotropic gene for bone mineral density and lean mass using the cFDR method

Ann Hum Genet. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/ahg.12438. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Bone mineral density (BMD) and whole-body lean mass (WBLM) are two important phenotypes of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Previous studies have shown that BMD and lean mass were phenotypically and genetically correlated. To identify the novel common genetic factors shared between BMD and WBLM, we performed the conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) analysis using summary data of the genome-wide association study of femoral neck BMD (n = 53,236) and WBLM (n = 38,292) from the Genetic Factors for Osteoporosis Consortium (GEFOS). We identified eight pleiotropic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) (PLCL1 rs11684176 and rs2880389, JAZF1 rs198, ADAMTSL3 rs10906982, RFTN2/MARS2 rs7340470, SH3GL3 rs1896797, ST7L rs10776755, ANKRD44/SF3B1 rs11888760) significantly associated with femoral neck BMD and WBLM (ccFDR < 0.05). Bayesian fine-mapping analysis showed that rs11888760, rs198, and rs1896797 were the possible functional variants in the ANKRD44/SF3B1, JAZF1i, and SH3GL3 loci, respectively. Functional annotation suggested that rs11888760 was likely to comprise a DNA regulatory element and linked to the expression of RFTN2 and PLCL1. PLCL1 showed differential expression in laryngeal posterior cricoarytenoid muscle between rats of 6 months and 30 months of age. Our findings, together with PLCL1’s potential functional relevance to bone and skeletal muscle function, suggested that rs11888760 was the possible pleiotropic functional variants appearing to coregulate both bone and muscle metabolism through regulating the expression of PLCL1. The findings enhanced our knowledge of genetic associations between BMD and lean mass and provide a rationale for subsequent functional studies of the implicated genes in the pathophysiology of diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

PMID:34115876 | DOI:10.1111/ahg.12438

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Severe recalled labor pain and elective cesarean section in a subsequent delivery: a cohort study of Norwegian parous women

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021 Jun 11. doi: 10.1111/aogs.14212. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Some women keep on recalling intense labor pain experienced at childbirth to a degree that it may negatively affect their life during the postpartum period or lead them to request a cesarean section (CS) in the subsequent delivery. This longitudinal study aimed to assess the impact of severe recalled labor pain from the previous birth on the preference of and delivery by an elective CS in the subsequent delivery. Further, we investigated if co-occurring maternal demographic, somatic, and mental health factors related to the previous and subsequent delivery explain parts of a potential association.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample comprised 1135 parous women from the Akershus Birth Cohort. Severe recalled labor pain was assessed by a numeric rating scale at pregnancy week 17, and at pregnancy week 32 the preference of an elective CS for the subsequent delivery was assessed. Information on actual delivery by elective CS in the subsequent delivery was drawn from the electronic birth record. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of severe recalled labor pain on elective CS.

RESULTS: Severe recalled labor pain at the previous birth was associated with a preference of an elective CS (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.25-5.67) and actual delivery by elective CS (OR 4.71, 95% CI 2.32-9.59). This association remained statistically significant for the preference of an elective CS (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.24-3.62), but diminished for delivery by elective CS (aOR 2.30, 95% CI 0.99-5.35) when adjusting for a variety of covariates. Factors related to previous childbirth such as passed years since previous birth, assisted vaginal delivery, anal sphincter lesions, overall birth experience, and fear of childbirth were also linked to preference and delivery by an elective CS.

CONCLUSIONS: Women with severe recalled labor pain were about twice as likely to prefer an elective CS compared to women without severe recalled pain. For actual delivery, the significant association with severe recalled pain diminished after adjustment for covariates. However, sample size was small and irrespective of severe recalled labor pain, preference of elective CS was statistically significantly associated with actual delivery by elective CS.

PMID:34115883 | DOI:10.1111/aogs.14212

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

The p16/ki-67 assay is a safe, effective and rapid approach to triage women with mild cervical lesions

PLoS One. 2021 Jun 11;16(6):e0253045. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253045. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of p16/ki-67 dual stain in the identification of CIN2+ lesions, in Greek women with ASCUS or LSIL cytology.

METHODS: A total of 200 women, 20 to 60 years old, were enrolled in the study. All samples were cytologically evaluated and performed for p16/ki-67 and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) test. All patients were referred to colposcopy for biopsy and histological evaluation. Three cervical cancer (CC) screening strategies were designed and the total direct medical costs of the procedures during our clinical trial were evaluated, from a healthcare perspective.

RESULTS: HPV 16 as expected was the most common HR-HPV type followed by HPV 31 and HPV 51. The risk for CIN2+ was significantly higher in HPV 16/18 positive cases. p16/ki-67 demonstrated a high sensitivity for CIN2+ identification in both ASCUS and LSIL groups (90.4% and 95%, respectively). HR-HPV test with sensitivity 52.3% and 65.5%, as well as colposcopy with sensitivity 14.3% and 36% respectively in ASCUS and LSIL group, showed inferior results compared to p16/ki-67. The specificity of p16/ki-67 for ASCUS and LSIL was 97.2% and 95.2% respectively, inferior only to colposcopy: 100% and 100%, lacking however statistical significance. HR-HPV test instead, presented the lowest specificity: 76.4% and 71.4% respectively in comparison to the other two methods. From a healthcare perspective, the costs and benefits of the tests implementation for the annual screening and triaging, in three CC screening strategies, were also calculated and discussed.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study indicate that p16/ki-67 is a safe and rapid assay that could be used to detect CIN2+ among women with mild cervical lesions, presenting both high sensitivity and specificity and could minimize the psychological and economic burden of HPV screening.

PMID:34115809 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0253045

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Epidermal growth factor as a potential prognostic and predictive biomarker of response to platinum-based chemotherapy

PLoS One. 2021 Jun 11;16(6):e0252646. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252646. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated serum epidermal growth factor (EGF) in an oncological population of head- and neck and pulmonary neoplasms and whether serum EGF could serve as a prognostic marker of survival and as a predictive marker for treatment response to platinum-based chemotherapy. A total of 59 oncological patients and a control group of age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in this study. Pre-treatment serum EGF from both groups was determined. Patient’s and tumour characteristics and mortality were recorded during a 5-year follow up period. Baseline serum EGF significantly differed between the oncological patients and the healthy volunteers (p<0.001). Serum EGF was associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.004) but not with sex (p = 0.753), age (p = 1.00), TNM stage (p = 0.191) or tumour size (p = 0.077). Neither serum EGF (p = 0.81) nor age (p = 0.55) showed an effect on the patient’s survival. Tumour location was significantly associated with overall 5-year survival (p = 0.003). The predictive capacity of serum EGF of response to chemotherapy was limited (AUC = 0.606), a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 56% was observed resulting in a likelihood ratio of a positive and negative test equal to 1.81 and 0.36, respectively. In conclusion, serum EGF levels are 5.5 times higher in an oncological population compared to a control group. Within the oncological population, low serum EGF values are associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis. Further investigation is necessary to determine if the serum EGF levels could serve as a diagnostic biomarker.

PMID:34115785 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0252646

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Assessment of mortality and performance status in critically ill cancer patients: A retrospective cohort study

PLoS One. 2021 Jun 11;16(6):e0252771. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252771. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Given clinicians’ frequent concerns about unfavourable outcomes, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) triage decisions in acutely ill cancer patients can be difficult, as clinicians may have doubts about the appropriateness of an ICU admission. To aid to this decision making, we studied the survival and performance status of cancer patients 2 years following an unplanned ICU admission.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in a large tertiary referral university hospital in the Netherlands. We categorized all adult patients with an unplanned ICU admission in 2017 into two groups: patients with or without an active malignancy. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s Chi-square tests and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate the primary objective 2-year mortality and performance status. A good performance status was defined as ECOG performance status 0 (fully active) or 1 (restricted in physically strenuous activity but ambulatory and able to carry out light work). A multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with 2-year mortality within cancer patients.

RESULTS: Of the 1046 unplanned ICU admissions, 125 (12%) patients had cancer. The 2-year mortality in patients with cancer was significantly higher than in patients without cancer (72% and 42.5%, P <0.001). The median performance status at 2 years in cancer patients was 1 (IQR 0-2). Only an ECOG performance status of 2 (OR 8.94; 95% CI 1.21-65.89) was independently associated with 2-year mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the majority of the survivors have a good performance status 2 years after ICU admission. However, at that point, three-quarter of these cancer patients had died, and mortality in cancer patients was significantly higher than in patients without cancer. ICU admission decisions in acutely ill cancer patients should be based on performance status, severity of illness and long-term prognosis, and this should be communicated in the shared decision making. An ICU admission decision should not solely be based on the presence of a malignancy.

PMID:34115771 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0252771

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Compassionate and respectful care among outpatient clients at public health facilities in Northwest Ethiopia: A mixed-methods study

PLoS One. 2021 Jun 11;16(6):e0252444. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252444. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Compassionate and respectful care is a pillar for improving health-seeking behaviour. It has given much attention globally, following the concerns that healthcare often falls significantly; however, less research emphasis was paid in the last decade. Therefore, this study aims to assess compassionate and respectful care and associated factors among outpatient clients at public health facilities in Northwest Ethiopia, 2020.

METHODS: A facility-based quantitative cross-sectional study supplemented with the qualitative findings was conducted from 30 February to 30 March 2020. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data among 593 participants. Systematic and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the quantitative and qualitative participants, respectively. A semi-structured interview guide was also employed for the qualitative data collection. Epi-Data version 4.6 and SPSS version 25 were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. The bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify the factors associated with each outcome variable (compassionate and respectful care separately). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value less than 0.05 were used to declare the strength and factors statistically associated with the outcome variables.

RESULTS: Overall, 72.8% and 82.6% of the respondents experienced compassionate and respectful care, respectively. Patients attending primary or above education (AOR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.21-0.59), attending at the hospital (AOR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.39-0.88), new clients (AOR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.70) and service users who had three or more visits (AOR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.17-0.71) were negatively associated with compassionate care. On the other hand, female patients (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32-0.87), aged over 36 years (AOR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.20-0.90), primary or above school attended clients (AOR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09-0.36), waiting two or more hours (AOR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13-0.62), and use public or private transport access (AOR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.83) were negatively associated with a respectful care.

CONCLUSION: Compassionate and respectful care provided to the outpatient clients in public health facilities of northwest Ethiopia was high. However, our result suggests that immediate actions are necessary to address respectful and compassionate care at hospitals, and hospital management should adopt mitigation measures. Consideration should be given to foster patient-centric services and educate the health care workers about compassionate and respectful care.

PMID:34115772 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0252444

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Hybrid 2-[18F] FDG PET/MRI in premanifest Huntington’s disease gene-expansion carriers: The significance of partial volume correction

PLoS One. 2021 Jun 11;16(6):e0252683. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0252683. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Huntington’s disease (HD) is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disease that has no cure. Striatal atrophy and hypometabolism has been described in HD as far as 15 years before clinical onset and therefore structural and functional imaging biomarkers are the most applied biomarker modalities which call for these to be exact; however, most studies are not considering the partial volume effect and thereby tend to overestimate metabolic reductions, which may bias imaging outcome measures of interventions.

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of partial volume effects in a cohort of premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers (HDGECs).

METHODS: 21 HDGECs and 17 controls had a hybrid 2-[18F]FDG PET/MRI scan performed. Volume measurements and striatal metabolism, both corrected and uncorrected for partial volume effect were correlated to an estimate of disease burden, the CAG age product scaled (CAPS).

RESULTS: We found significantly reduced striatal metabolism in HDGECs, but not in striatal volume. There was a negative correlation between the CAPS and striatal metabolism, both corrected and uncorrected for the partial volume effect. The partial volume effect was largest in the smallest structures and increased the difference in metabolism between the HDGEC with high and low CAPS scores. Statistical parametric mapping confirmed the results.

CONCLUSIONS: A hybrid 2-[18F]FDG PET/MRI scan provides simultaneous information on structure and metabolism. Using this approach for the first time on HDGECs, we highlight the importance of partial volume effect correction in order not to underestimate the standardized uptake value and thereby the risk of overestimating the metabolic effect on the striatal structures, which potentially could bias studies determining imaging outcome measures of interventions in HDGECs and probably also symptomatic HD.

PMID:34115782 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0252683

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Efficient representations of tumor diversity with paired DNA-RNA aberrations

PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1008944. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008944. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cancer cells display massive dysregulation of key regulatory pathways due to now well-catalogued mutations and other DNA-related aberrations. Moreover, enormous heterogeneity has been commonly observed in the identity, frequency and location of these aberrations across individuals with the same cancer type or subtype, and this variation naturally propagates to the transcriptome, resulting in myriad types of dysregulated gene expression programs. Many have argued that a more integrative and quantitative analysis of heterogeneity of DNA and RNA molecular profiles may be necessary for designing more systematic explorations of alternative therapies and improving predictive accuracy. We introduce a representation of multi-omics profiles which is sufficiently rich to account for observed heterogeneity and support the construction of quantitative, integrated, metrics of variation. Starting from the network of interactions existing in Reactome, we build a library of “paired DNA-RNA aberrations” that represent prototypical and recurrent patterns of dysregulation in cancer; each two-gene “Source-Target Pair” (STP) consists of a “source” regulatory gene and a “target” gene whose expression is plausibly “controlled” by the source gene. The STP is then “aberrant” in a joint DNA-RNA profile if the source gene is DNA-aberrant (e.g., mutated, deleted, or duplicated), and the downstream target gene is “RNA-aberrant”, meaning its expression level is outside the normal, baseline range. With M STPs, each sample profile has exactly one of the 2M possible configurations. We concentrate on subsets of STPs, and the corresponding reduced configurations, by selecting tissue-dependent minimal coverings, defined as the smallest family of STPs with the property that every sample in the considered population displays at least one aberrant STP within that family. These minimal coverings can be computed with integer programming. Given such a covering, a natural measure of cross-sample diversity is the extent to which the particular aberrant STPs composing a covering vary from sample to sample; this variability is captured by the entropy of the distribution over configurations. We apply this program to data from TCGA for six distinct tumor types (breast, prostate, lung, colon, liver, and kidney cancer). This enables an efficient simplification of the complex landscape observed in cancer populations, resulting in the identification of novel signatures of molecular alterations which are not detected with frequency-based criteria. Estimates of cancer heterogeneity across tumor phenotypes reveals a stable pattern: entropy increases with disease severity. This framework is then well-suited to accommodate the expanding complexity of cancer genomes and epigenomes emerging from large consortia projects.

PMID:34115745 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008944

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Effects of additional load at different heights on gait initiation: A statistical parametric mapping of center of pressure and center of mass behavior

PLoS One. 2021 Jun 11;16(6):e0242892. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242892. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different vertical positions of an asymmetrical load on the anticipatory postural adjustments phase of gait initiation. Sixty-eight college students (32 males, 36 females; age: 23.65 ± 3.21 years old; weight: 69.98 ± 8.15 kg; height: 1.74 ± 0.08 m) were enrolled in the study. Ground reaction forces and moments were collected using two force platforms. The participants completed three trials under each of the following random conditions: no-load (NL), waist uniformly distributed load (WUD), shoulder uniformly distributed load (SUD), waist stance foot load (WST), shoulder stance foot load (SST), waist swing foot load (WSW), and shoulder swing foot load (SSW). The paired Hotelling’s T-square test was used to compare the experimental conditions. The center of pressure (COP) time series were significantly different for the SUD vs. NL, SST vs. NL, WST vs. NL, and WSW vs. NL comparisons. Significant differences in COP time series were observed for all comparisons between waist vs. shoulder conditions. Overall, these differences were greater when the load was positioned at the shoulders. For the center of mass (COM) time series, significant differences were found for the WUD vs. NL and WSW vs. NL conditions. However, no differences were observed with the load positioned at the shoulders. In conclusion, only asymmetrical loading at the waist produced significant differences, and the higher the extra load, the greater the effects on COP behavior. By contrast, only minor changes were observed in COM behavior, suggesting that the changes in COP (the controller) behavior are adjustments to maintain the COM (controlled object) unaltered.

PMID:34115751 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0242892