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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Model-based end-to-end learning for a self-homodyne coherent system

Opt Lett. 2022 Oct 1;47(19):4901-4904. doi: 10.1364/OL.469648.

ABSTRACT

We investigate the statistical properties of the inherent intensity fluctuation in a low-cost and low-complexity self-homodyne coherent system employing an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source. The noise distribution model of the considered system is established, which is shown to be highly consistent with the experimental results for a 10 GBd 256-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal transmission over a 10 m duplex fiber. With the help of the proposed noise model, we then design advanced mappers and demappers. The optimized system alleviates the need for ASE bandwidth and is evaluated by applying forward error correction codes. Furthermore, we demonstrate an information rate increase of 6.67% with respect to 64-QAM.

PMID:36181146 | DOI:10.1364/OL.469648

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

A systematic review of prognosis of ABO blood group and rhesus factor on outcomes in patients with bladder cancer

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30893. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030893.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is the 10th most common malignancy worldwide, and some studies reported that ABO blood type or/and rhesus factor has been identified as a prognostic oncologic marker for patients with BC. We carried out a systematic review to assess the prognosis of ABO blood group and rhesus factor on outcomes in patients with bladder cancer.

METHODS: We searched databases through February 2022 for studies assessing blood group on outcomes in patients with bladder cancer.

RESULTS: We included ten studies with 15,204 participants. We found that blood type A is relevant to non-muscle-invasive BC patients treated with transurethral resection of bladder tumor and blood type B patients have a lower incidence of disease recurrence and progression. Blood type O and non-O blood type have not been found to be related to disease recurrence. However, in multivariable analyses, blood type O and non-O blood type are associated with cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Other than that, blood type B doesn’t have statistical significance for BC patients accepted radical cystectomy (RC). The same results showed in blood type AB non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients treated with RC.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that a particular association of blood type for prognosis of patients with BC, and ABO blood group antigen expression can be suitable biomarkers for BC. We also found that rhesus factor has no impact on prognosis of BC patients.

PMID:36181128 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030893

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Prognostic value of MTV and TLG of 18 F-FDG PET in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A meta-analysis

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30798. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030798.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current systematic review and meta-analysis explored the value of metabolic tumor volume (MTV) as well as total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in predicting the prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) using 18 F-FDG PET parameters.

METHODS: This work identified relevant studies in the English language by searching several electronic databases, like Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed. In addition, pooled hazard ratios (HRs) were also calculated to analyze whether MTV and TLG were significant in predicting prognosis.

RESULTS: The present study included 15 primary studies involving HNSCC cases. As for the elevated TLG, it attained the pooled HR of 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.94; P = .000; I2 = 78.3%) in predicting overall survival (OS), whereas that for elevated MTV was1.22 (95%CI, 1.09-1.36; P = .000; I2 = 82.4%). Besides, for elevated MTV, it attained the pooled HR of 1.34 (95%CI, 1.15-1.56, P = .000; I2 = 86.0%) in predicting disease-free survival (DFS); while the elevated TLG was related to DFS. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that our results are reliable. As for MTV, the ROC-stratified subgroups for DFS and multivariate analyses-stratified subgroups for OS showed statistically significant differences, with no obvious heterogeneities across different studies. For TLG, other methods-stratified subgroups for OS showed statistically significant differences, with no obvious heterogeneity across different studies.

CONCLUSION: This work indicated that PET/CT is of predictive significance across HNSCC cases. Although the included articles used different methods and recruited HNSCC cases with high clinical heterogeneity; however, our findings confirmed that an elevated MTV can predict the increased risk of side reactions or even death among HNSCC cases and that an elevated TLG can predict a higher death risk.

PMID:36181127 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030798

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Usefulness of preoperative Short Form-36 Mental Component Score as a prognostic factor in patients who underwent decompression surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30231. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030231.

ABSTRACT

Physical factors such as frequency of low back pain, sensory abnormalities in the lower extremities, smoking history before surgery, and preoperative mental health status as predictors of operative outcomes have been growing as areas of interest in the field of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the preoperative Short Form-36 Mental Component Score (SF-36 MCS) and long-term prognosis after decompression surgery for DLSS. In total, 198 patients were enrolled in this study. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Rolland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) were used to evaluate spinal functional outcomes. The SF-36 questionnaire was used and analyzed by classifying it into physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS). The SF-36 MCS was divided into role limitations caused by emotional problems, social functioning, vitality, and emotional well-being. In the correlation between preoperative MCS and ODI improvement, the r value was -0.595 (P < .05) at 12 months postoperatively. ODI improvement at 12 months after decompression surgery showed a statistically significant and strong negative correlation with preoperative MCS. In the correlation between preoperative MCS and RMDQ improvement, the r value was -0.544 (P < .05) at 12 months postoperatively. Therefore, RMDQ improvement 12 months after decompression surgery showed a strong negative correlation with preoperative MCS. Regarding the correlation between preoperative MCS and SF-36 PCS improvement, the r values were 0.321 (P < .05) at 6 months postoperatively and 0.343 (P < .05) at 12 months postoperatively. Therefore, SF-36 PCS improvement at 6 and 12 months after decompression surgery showed a strong positive correlation with preoperative SF-36 MCS scores. Preoperative SF-36 MCS is a factor that can predict the prognosis of patients who underwent decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis for at least 1 year postoperatively.

PMID:36181126 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030231

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

TYRO protein tyrosine kinase-binding protein predicts favorable overall survival in osteosarcoma and correlates with antitumor immunity

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30878. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030878.

ABSTRACT

To explore the prognostic significance and underlying mechanism of TYRO protein tyrosine kinase-binding protein (TYROBP) in osteosarcoma. Firstly, the expression of TYROBP was analyzed using the t test. The Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis and a receiver operating characteristic curve were performed to evaluate the influence of TYROBP on overall survival (OS). Further, Cox regression analysis was conducted to predict the independent prognostic factors for OS of osteosarcoma patients, and a nomogram was constructed. Then, the relationship between TYROBP and clinicopathological characteristics was determined using statistical methods. Enrichment analyses were conducted to evaluate the biological functions of TYROBP. Finally, the ESTIMATE algorithm was used to assess the association of TYROBP with immune cell infiltration. TYROBP was significantly increased in osteosarcoma (all P < .001). However, the high expression of TYROBP was related to better OS in osteosarcoma patients. Cox regression analysis showed that TYROBP was an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS (P = .005), especially in patients of the male sex, age <18 years, metastasis, and tumor site leg/foot (all P < .05). Besides, TYROBP mRNA expression was significantly associated with the tumor site (P < .01) but had no remarkable relationship with age, gender, and metastasis status (all P > .05). Functional annotation and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that TYROBP was mainly involved in immune-related pathways. Importantly, TYROBP positively correlated with immune scores (P < .001, R = .87). TYROBP served as an independent prognostic biomarker for OS in osteosarcoma. High TYROBP expression might prolong the survival of osteosarcoma patients mainly through promoting antitumor immunity.

PMID:36181123 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030878

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Cholecystectomy before, simultaneously, or after ERCP in patients with acute cholecystitis: A protocol for systematic review and/or meta analysis

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30772. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030772.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cholecystectomy is the intervention of choice for treating acute cholecystitis; when conservative management does not work, it operates on the patient outside the critical condition. It can be performed together with or after endoscopic papillotomy through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) when it is concurrent with a situation of cholechodocolithiasis or when there is compression and consequent increase in pressure in the bile duct caused by a calculus jammed in the vesicular infundibulum (Mirizzi’s syndrome), with or without jaundice, fever, and pain in the right hypochondrium (Charcot’s Triad), which can progress to sepsis of biliary origin. This review aims to assess whether the timing of cholecystectomy (before or after ERCP) interferes with the postoperative period and clinical outcome in patients with acute cholecystitis.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: By searching the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, CINAHAL, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, Scopus and Cochrane Central databases, Controlled Trials Registry Randomized clinical trials will be searched to analyze whether ERCP performed before or after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in patients with acute cholecystitis is beneficial or not, through the analysis of postoperative complications. No language or publication period restrictions will be imposed. The primary outcome will be postoperative complications (postoperative morbidity and mortality). Four independent reviewers will select the studies and extract data from the original publications, with a fifth reviewer in case of disagreement regarding the inclusion or not of particular research in the present review. The risk of bias will be assessed using The Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2.0) tool, and the certainty of evidence will be evaluated using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation. Data synthesis will be performed using the Review Manager software (RevMan V.5.2.3). To assess heterogeneity, we will calculate the I2 statistics. Additionally, a quantitative synthesis will be performed if the included studies are sufficiently homogeneous.

ETHICS AND DISCLOSURE: Since the present study will review secondary data, previously published and scientifically validated, it will not be necessary to obtain ethical approval. The results of this systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42021290726.

PMID:36181122 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030772

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Serum neurofilament light chain levels are correlated with the infarct volume in patients with acute ischemic stroke

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30849. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030849.

ABSTRACT

Neurofilament light chains (NfLs) are promising biomarkers of neuroaxonal damage in stroke patients. We investigated the correlations between NfL levels and infarct volume, initial stroke severity, and functional outcomes at discharge in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We prospectively included 15 patients with first-ever acute ischemic stroke and 8 age- and sex-matched healthy controls without other neurological disorders. Serum NfL levels were measured using the single-molecule array (Simoa) technique twice within 24 hours of admission (NfL1D) and on the seventh hospital day (NfL7D) in patients with stroke and once in healthy controls. We assessed the infarct volume on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using the free software ITK-SNAP. Serum NfL1D levels in stroke patients were significantly higher (28.4 pg/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 43.0) than in healthy controls (14.5 pg/mL; IQR, 3.2; P = .005). Temporal pattern analyses demonstrated that NfL7D levels were increased (114.0 pg/mL; IQR, 109.6) compared to NfL1D levels in all stroke patients (P = .001). There was a strong correlation between NfL7D levels and infarct volume (R = 0.67, P = .007). The difference between NfL1D and NfL7D (NfLdiff levels) was strongly correlated with the infarct volume (R = 0.63; P = .013). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between NfL levels and the initial stroke severity or functional outcomes at discharge. NfL levels in the subacute stage of stroke and the NfL difference between admission and 7th day of hospital were correlated with infarct volume in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

PMID:36181119 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030849

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Clinical efficacy of acupuncture combined with Western medicine in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: A protocol of a randomized controlled trial

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30705. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030705.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common cause of dementia, and there are still a lack of treatment options to reverse or prevent disease progression. Existing evidence shows that acupuncture has advantages in the treatment of AD, but whether the efficacy of acupuncture belongs to the placebo effect remains controversial, and there is no strict placebo-controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with Western medicine in the treatment of AD.

METHODS: This is a prospective randomized, a single-blind, sham-acupuncture controlled trial to study the clinical efficacy of acupuncture combined with Western medicine in the treatment of mild to moderate AD. Participants will be randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The treatment group using acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride orally, and the control group using sham acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride orally, followed up for 24 weeks after 24 weeks of continuous treatment. Outcome measures included: AD assessment scale-cognitive subscale, mini-mental state examination, activities of daily living, neuropsychiatric inventory questionnaire, serum superoxide dismutase, and homocysteine levels. Finally, SPASS 21.0 software was used for statistical analysis of the data.

DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture combined with Western medicine in improving cognitive function and activities of daily living in AD patients. The results of this study will verify whether the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of AD belongs to the placebo effect, which will also provide a reference for the clinical use of acupuncture combined with Western medicine in the treatment of AD.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The TCTR identification number is TCTR20220817004.

PMID:36181104 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030705

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Prevalence and risk factors of depression, anxiety, and stress in an Ecuadorian outpatient population with type II diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study (STROBE)

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30697. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030697.

ABSTRACT

Type II diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a worldwide disease with an important economic and health impact. Currently, depression, anxiety and stress are common disorders among diabetic populations but their respective prevalence may well be underestimated. So far, Latin American countries have only reported limited information about the impact of mental diseases on DM2 outpatients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors related to depression, anxiety, and stress among ambulatory DM2 populations from two third-level hospitals in Quito, Ecuador. A cross-sectional study based on a random sample was carried out in two hospitals. Patients were evaluated by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). In addition, a validated survey was used to grade socioeconomic, demographic, clinical, and comorbidity variables. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 22.0). STROBE guidelines were used for reporting this trial. A total of 208 adult patients with DM2 were included (women 58%; men 42%). The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress was 31.7% (95% CI, 25.5-38.5%), 33.7% (95% CI, 27.3-40.5%), and 25.0% (95% CI, 19.3-31.5%), respectively. Male gender was associated with a decreased risk for depression (OR 0.39 [95% CI, 0.18-0.81]; P = .01), anxiety (OR 0.31 [95% CI, 0.16-0.65]; P = .002), and stress (OR 0.35 [95% CI, 0.15-0.77]; P = .009). A higher level of education was associated with low risk for depression (OR 0.23 [95% CI, 0.11-0.46]; P < .001), anxiety (OR 0.47 [95% CI, 0.25-0.90]; P = .02), and stress (OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.12-0.49]; P = .001). In contrast, patients with DM2 complications were more likely to have depression (OR 2.96 [95% CI, 1.32-6.63]; P = .008) and anxiety (OR 2.56 [95% CI, 1.20-5.48]; P = .01). Finally, an income higher than the basic salary reduced the risk of depression alone (OR 0.39 [95% CI, 0.16-0.91]; P = .03). In conclusion, a high prevalence rate of depression, anxiety, and stress was found in the DM2 outpatient population. Thus, more tailored care surveillance for DM2 patients is needed considering the bio-psycho-social environment to provide an integral health management.

PMID:36181107 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030697

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

The effectiveness of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine and gemcitabine monotherapy in first-line metastatic pancreatic cancer treatment: A real-world evidence

Medicine (Baltimore). 2022 Sep 30;101(39):e30566. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030566.

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies with a rise in mortality rates. FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine demonstrated a survival benefit compared to gemcitabine alone. Both protocols are now considered the standard of first-line treatment with no significant difference between them, primarily based on observational studies. Although new therapeutic options have emerged recently, the prognosis remains poor. We conducted a retrospective single-center study on 139 patients treated for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) with gemcitabine monotherapy (Gem) or nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine (Nab-P/Gem) in the first line. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) as well as the influence of patient and disease characteristics on outcomes. Nab-P/Gem resulted in OS of 13.87 months compared to 8.5 months in patients receiving Gem. The same trend was achieved in PFS, 5.37 versus 2.80 months, respectively, but without reaching statistical significance. Furthermore, the 6-month survival in the Nab-P/Gem group was also higher, 78.1% versus 47.8%. In terms of survival, the group of elderly patients, patients of poorer performance, with higher metastatic burden and liver involvement, benefited the most from combination therapy. In our analysis ECOG performance status (p.s.), previous primary tumor surgery, and liver involvement were found to be independent prognostic factors. The addition of nab-paclitaxel to gemcitabine resulted in a significant improvement in the OS of patients with mPDAC. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that patients with some unfavorable prognostic factors benefited the most.

PMID:36181099 | DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000030566