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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Childhood eczema prevalence in New Zealand using topical corticosteroid dispensing data

Australas J Dermatol. 2024 Jul 14. doi: 10.1111/ajd.14347. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of eczema among children in New Zealand.

METHODS: Population-based retrospective observational study utilising national pharmaceutical dispensing records for topical corticosteroids and emollients for all New Zealand children aged 0-14 years from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2019. Data are reported using descriptive statistics, with comparisons between ethnicities and socioeconomic quintiles undertaken with rate ratios.

RESULTS: Based on dispensing data, the prevalence of eczema for New Zealand children aged 0-14 years in 2018 was 14.0% (95% CI 14.0%-14.1%), with prevalence decreasing in older age groups (children aged <1 year 26.0% (25.6%-26.4%); children aged 10-14 years 8.8% (8.7%-8.9%)). Prevalence was higher in Pacific children (23.6% (23.3%-24.0%)), but slightly lower in Māori children (13.2% (13.0%-13.3%)).

CONCLUSION: Eczema is a common condition affecting a considerable proportion of children in New Zealand. This study provides nationwide paediatric prevalence data for New Zealand, and highlights the increased burden of eczema in Pacific children. Inequity in dispensing of topical corticosteroids is postulated to explain the reduced rates found for Māori children compared to previous studies. These results support the need for further research to determine factors contributing to differing eczema prevalence rates in New Zealand.

PMID:39003644 | DOI:10.1111/ajd.14347

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Systemic administration of propranolol reduces bone resorption and inflammation in apical periodontitis of chronically stressed rats

Int Endod J. 2024 Jul 14. doi: 10.1111/iej.14118. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the effect of systemic administration of propranolol on the severity of apical periodontitis (AP) in chronically stressed rats.

METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four 70-day-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus) were distributed into three groups (n = 8): rats with AP without stressful conditions (AP-Control), rats with AP and submitted to a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) protocol (AP + S) and rats with AP and submitted to a CUS protocol treated with propranolol (AP + S + PRO). Stress procedures were applied daily until the end of the experiment. After 3 weeks of CUS, AP was induced in all groups by exposing the pulpal tissue of mandibular and maxillary first molars to the oral environment. Propranolol treatment was administered orally once a day for the entire period of the experiment. Rats were sacrificed at 42 days, and the blood was collected for stress biomarkers serum dosage by multiplex assay. Mandibles were removed and submitted to microtomography and histopathological analyses. Periapical tissue surrounding the upper first molar was homogenized and subjected to RT-PCR analysis to evaluate the mRNA expression of RANKL, TRAP and OPG. Parametric data were assessed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test while the nonparametric data were analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn’s test. Significance level was set at 5% (p < .05) for all assessed parameters.

RESULTS: Micro-CT revealed statistically significant differences in bone resorption which was greater in the AP + S group (p < .05), but no differences were observed between the Control and AP + S + PRO groups (p > .05). The AP + S + PRO group had a lower intensity and extent of inflammatory infiltrate compared to the AP + S group with smaller areas of bone loss (p < 0.05). The gene expression of RANKL and TRAP was significantly higher in the stressed group AP + S compared to the control group (p < .05), and a significantly higher OPG expression was observed in AP + S + PRO compared to the AP + S group (p < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of propranolol had a significant effect on the AP severity in stressed rats, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect and a protective role on bone resorption of AP in stressed animals. Further research is necessary to fully comprehend the underlying mechanisms.

PMID:39003599 | DOI:10.1111/iej.14118

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IL-6 and hsCRP predict cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

ESC Heart Fail. 2024 Jul 14. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.14959. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Inflammation accompanies heart failure (HF) and elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers are linked to new onset of HF. However, whether the prognostic relevance of inflammatory biomarkers is different in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unclear. The aim of the current study is to explore the role of inflammation on the mortality risk in patients with HF.

METHODS: We analysed interleukin-6 and hsCRP levels by ELISA and immunonephelometry, respectively, in HFpEF and HFrEF patients referred for coronary angiography and assessed the prognostic value in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study.

RESULTS: HF was present in 1086 patients (N = 506 HFpEF; N = 580 HFrEF; mean age 65 ± 10 years; 28% female). Increasing IL-6 levels were significantly associated with increased CV mortality in HFpEF [1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.2), P = 0.018] but not HFrEF [HR 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7), P = 0.06] patients. High-sensitive CRP followed a similar pattern but failed to reach statistical significance after full-adjustment (HFpEF: HR 1.4 95%C I: 1.0-2.0; P = 0.065; HFrEF HR: 1.0 95% CI: 0.7-1.3; P = 0.800). Interaction analysis in patients stratified by IL-6 and N terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) above and below the median revealed a stepwise increase in CV-mortality in HFpEF (P = 0.036) but not HFrEF patients (P = 0.220). To investigate the relationship between IL-6 and NT-proBNP, we assessed the genetic IL6-Receptor variant p.Asp358Ala (rs2228145) which is linked to impaired IL-6 receptor signalling. Homozygous carriers with HFpEF but not HFrEF exhibited significantly lower NT-pro-BNP levels compared with wildtype carriers (HFpEF 779 pg/mL ± 787 vs. 1180 pg/ mL ± 1532; P = 0.008; HFrEF 2289 pg/ mL ± 3439 vs. 2326 pg/ mL ± 3386; P = 0.94), raising the hypothesis that IL-6 signalling may play a pathophysiological role in HFpEF.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a predictive value of elevated IL-6 for CV-mortality in HFpEF but not in HFrEF patients.

PMID:39003598 | DOI:10.1002/ehf2.14959

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Evaluating artificial intelligence-enhanced digital urine cytology for bladder cancer diagnosis

Cancer Cytopathol. 2024 Jul 14. doi: 10.1002/cncy.22884. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the diagnostic effectiveness of the AIxURO platform, an artificial intelligence-based tool, to support urine cytology for bladder cancer management, which typically requires experienced cytopathologists and substantial diagnosis time.

METHODS: One cytopathologist and two cytotechnologists reviewed 116 urine cytology slides and corresponding whole-slide images (WSIs) from urology patients. They used three diagnostic modalities: microscopy, WSI review, and AIxURO, per The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology (TPS) criteria. Performance metrics, including TPS-guided and binary diagnosis, inter- and intraobserver agreement, and screening time, were compared across all methods and reviewers.

RESULTS: AIxURO improved diagnostic accuracy by increasing sensitivity (from 25.0%-30.6% to 63.9%), positive predictive value (PPV; from 21.6%-24.3% to 31.1%), and negative predictive value (NPV; from 91.3%-91.6% to 95.3%) for atypical urothelial cell (AUC) cases. For suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (SHGUC) cases, it improved sensitivity (from 15.2%-27.3% to 33.3%), PPV (from 31.3%-47.4% to 61.1%), and NPV (from 91.6%-92.7% to 93.3%). Binary diagnoses exhibited an improvement in sensitivity (from 77.8%-82.2% to 90.0%) and NPV (from 91.7%-93.4% to 95.8%). Interobserver agreement across all methods showed moderate consistency (κ = 0.57-0.61), with the cytopathologist demonstrating higher intraobserver agreement than the two cytotechnologists across the methods (κ = 0.75-0.88). AIxURO significantly reduced screening time by 52.3%-83.2% from microscopy and 43.6%-86.7% from WSI review across all reviewers. Screening-positive (AUC+) cases required more time than negative cases across all methods and reviewers.

CONCLUSIONS: AIxURO demonstrates the potential to improve both sensitivity and efficiency in bladder cancer diagnostics via urine cytology. Its integration into the cytopathological screening workflow could markedly decrease screening times, which would improve overall diagnostic processes.

PMID:39003588 | DOI:10.1002/cncy.22884

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Evaluation of a flow cytometry-based method for determination of T-lymphocyte subtypes for quality assessment of cell therapy products

Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2024 Jul 14:1-5. doi: 10.1080/00365513.2024.2377961. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell therapy is currently the best-known type of immune effector cells therapy. For CAR T-cell therapy, the determination of CD3+ T cells is necessary for the quality control of fresh leukapheresis product as starting material. The aim was to validate analytical method for quantification of percentage and absolute count of T lymphocyte subtypes (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in fresh apheresis products using single-platform method on flow cytometer BD FACS Canto II. Validation study included determination of precision, trueness (bias), assessment of linearity, carryover, comparison of results obtained with two different protocols on flow cytometer for CD3+ cells determination and stability study. For between-run precision coefficients of variation (CVs) were <20%, as well as bias for all T-lymphocyte subtypes. For within-run precision, CVs were <10%, except for low CD8+ cell (percentage 10.51% and viable absolute count 12.37%). Comparison of results obtained with two different protocols for CD3+ cells determination shows no statistically significant difference. Statistically significant differences between results of the analysis of CD4+ cells in fresh samples and results obtained after storage at 4 °C (p = .004) and at room temperature (p = .018) were found. In conclusion, method for enumeration of T-lymphocyte subtypes can be used in routine work on BD FACS Canto II instrument for quality assessment of fresh cell products collected by leukapheresis procedure.

PMID:39003578 | DOI:10.1080/00365513.2024.2377961

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Radiographic evaluation of the forelimb bone development in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus)

Anat Histol Embryol. 2024 Jul;53(4):e13091. doi: 10.1111/ahe.13091.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the fusion of growth plates and the development of secondary ossification centres in the forelimb bones of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus), contrasting the findings with established data from domestic dogs. Three maned wolves, comprising one male and two females, initially aged between 3 and 4 months, were subjected to monthly radiographic evaluations until 10-11 months of age, followed by bimonthly assessments until 18-19 months of age, encompassing both forelimbs. The closure times of growth plates were observed as follows: supraglenoid tubercle (7-8 months), proximal humerus (17-19 months), distal humerus (8-9 months), medial epicondyle of the humerus (8-9 months), proximal ulna (9-10 months), proximal radius (13-15 months), distal ulna (13-15 months) and distal radius (17-19 months). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the areas of secondary ossification centres in the proximal epiphyses of the humerus and radius, respectively, observed from the initial evaluation at 8-9 months and 6-7 months. Conversely, the epiphyses of the supraglenoid tubercle, distal humerus, proximal ulna, distal ulna, medial epicondyle of the humerus and distal radius did not exhibit significant area differences between 3-4 months and 4-5 months, yet notable distinctions emerged at 5-6 months. In summary, while the radiographic appearance of epiphyseal growth plates and secondary ossification centres in maned wolves resembles that of domestic dogs, closure times vary. These findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of epiphyseal growth plates in this species.

PMID:39003574 | DOI:10.1111/ahe.13091

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Arkady Mihailovich Merkov (1899-1971): to the 125th Anniversary

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med. 2024 May;32(3):495-498. doi: 10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-495-498.

ABSTRACT

The article takes up scientific, teaching and organizational activities of Arkady Mikhailovich Merkov, professor and doctor of medical sciences. A. M. Merkov is prominent specialist in the field of social hygiene and health care organization. He is author of about 200 works, including 23 monographs devoted to sanitary and demographic statistics and statistics of malignant neoplasms.

PMID:39003561 | DOI:10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-495-498

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

The venereal morbidity in Russia in 1914-1924

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med. 2024 May;32(3):484-489. doi: 10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-484-489.

ABSTRACT

It is accepted to explain increasing of venereal diseases during years of the Revolution by degradation of morality and general disorder of system of state administration and sanitary services in Russia. The cross-verification of information presented in scientific publications and primary information sources makes it possible to look into following issues: degree of venereal (syphilitic) contamination of population of pre-revolutionary Russia; influence on sanitary statistics by erroneous diagnostics and convictions of Zemstvo medicine about predominantly non-sexual path of transmission of syphilis pathogen in Russian countryside; dynamics and sources of venereal morbidity in wartime. The high indicators of pre-revolutionary statistics of venereal infections could be affected by diagnostic errors. The “village syphilis” encountered in public milieu could be completely different disease not sexually transmitted and not chronic form of disease. The primary documents allow to discuss increasing of the number of venereal patients during war years, that however, does not reach catastrophic numbers that can be found even in scientific publications. This is also confirmed by data of Chief Military Sanitary Board of the Red Army for 1920s and statistical materials of People’s Commissariat of Health Care of the RSFSR. The high morbidity was demonstrated by same Gubernias that were problematic before the Revolution and only later by those ones through which during the war years passed army masses. In Russia, total level of syphilis morbidity after the end of Civil War occurred to be more than twice lower than in pre-war 1913 and continued to decrease under impact of sanitary measures of Soviet public health.

PMID:39003559 | DOI:10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-484-489

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

The readiness of Kazakhstan to implementation of medicinal insurance: the sociological substantiation and education activities of public organizations

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med. 2024 May;32(3):456-461. doi: 10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-456-461.

ABSTRACT

Until recently, in Kazakhstan, both health care services and medication support of population were financed from National budget and compulsory social health insurance foundation. But actual system meet needs of Kazakhstanis in medications not in full measure. The purpose of the study is to identify readiness of citizens to implementation of new medicinal insurance program with state co-financing. The study was carried out in 2022 in 17 regions of Kazakhstan. The readiness of Kazakhstanis to participate in medicinal insurance program with state co-financing was studied through sociological survey of 5 819 Kazakhstanis. The sociological survey revealed that respondents express average degree of readiness to implementation of new medicinal insurance program with state co-financing and to purchasing of insurance policy. The correlation between social demographic characteristics (objective indicators) and readiness indicator (subjective indicator) was revealed. The younger males with higher education, residing in urban areas, with average and high income and officially married are more inclined to purchase insurance policy. At that, according to results of sociological survey, one third of respondents have no relevant information about health insurance in general and medicinal insurance in particular. They found it difficult to express their personal position about this issues. It is supposed that Kazakhstanis in the result of educational measures will take part in medicinal insurance program with state co-financing. The education projects can be implemented through public organizations operating locally and communicating with population at the micro level. It is determined that it is especially important to apply educational measures to rural residents, middle-aged and elderly people, females and persons with low average income per family member.

PMID:39003554 | DOI:10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-456-461

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The analysis of demand in pathoanatomists applying staff standards

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med. 2024 May;32(3):445-451. doi: 10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-445-451.

ABSTRACT

The objective analysis of state of medical personnel, along with assessment of real need for specialists, is the basis of improving activities of any health care service. In relation to pathologists, there is unique opportunity to perform similar analysis, based on application of current corresponding staff standards that consider volume of workload of physicians in order to determine required number of positions. The implementation of corresponding original methodology permitted to establish that the actual number of staff positions of pathologists in 2022 amounted up to average 40.6% of the number required according to staffing standards in the Irkutsk Oblast. The physician staffing ratio, calculated on the basis of required number of positions found according to proposed methodology, decreases to 29.1% and staffing with physicians excluding combined jobs to 17.1%. At that, implemented workload per one pathologist reaches 5.9 of standard positions. The deficiency of representatives of this specialty in the region, even if current combined jobs ratio is maintained, is 154 specialists.

PMID:39003553 | DOI:10.32687/0869-866X-2024-32-3-445-451