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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Resource utilization, work productivity and costs in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa: a cost-of-illness study

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1080/14737167.2021.1895753. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a potentially disabling, chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting up to 1% of the population in Europe. This study aims to assess the cost-of-illness of HS from a societal perspective in Hungary, and to analyse the predictors of costs.Methods: A multicentre, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study was performed among 200 adult HS patients. We evaluated direct medical (physician consultations, inpatient admissions, medical and surgeries), direct non-medical (transportation and caregiving) and indirect costs (productivity loss).Results: The mean annual cost-of-illness of HS was €6,791 per patient. The main cost components were productivity loss (53.3%), biological treatment (21.5%) and informal care (9.2%). Patients missed, on average, 26 and 63 days from work annually due to absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively. Male sex, more severe disease, gluteal involvement and coexisting inflammatory bowel disease were associated with higher direct medical costs, while lower education level and worse quality-of-life outcomes predicted higher indirect costs.Conclusions: This is the first study to assess both direct and indirect costs in HS patients. HS imposes a substantial burden on patients and society, predominantly arising from productivity loss and biological therapy. Resource utilization data and cost-of-illness estimates provide valuable inputs into cost-effectiveness analyses of health interventions in HS.

PMID:33629618 | DOI:10.1080/14737167.2021.1895753

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Widespread non-joint pain in early rheumatoid arthritis

Scand J Rheumatol. 2021 Feb 25:1-9. doi: 10.1080/03009742.2020.1846778. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the development of widespread non-joint pain (WNP) in a cohort of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the associated health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and clinical and demographic risk factors for WNP.Method: Incident cases with RA, from the Swedish population-based study Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA), with a follow-up of at least 3 years, constituted the study population. WNP was defined as pain outside the joints in all four body quadrants and was assessed at the 3 year follow-up. Patients who reported WNP were compared to patients without WNP regarding HRQoL, measured by the Short Form-36, at 3 years, and clinical and demographic characteristics at the time of RA diagnosis.Results: A total of 749 patients constituted the study sample, of whom 25 were excluded after reporting already having severe pain before RA diagnosis. At the 3 year follow-up, 8% of the patients reported having WNP as well as statistically significant worse HRQoL. At the time of RA diagnosis, the patients with WNP had worse pain and pain-related features, while no difference was seen in the inflammatory parameters.Conclusion: WNP occurs in a substantial subset of patients with RA, also early in the course of the disease, and the HRQoL for these patients is significantly reduced. Patients who develop WNP at 3 years are already distinguishable at the time of diagnosis by displaying more pronounced pain ratings together with an average level of inflammatory disease activity.

PMID:33629632 | DOI:10.1080/03009742.2020.1846778

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

EXPRESS: Reliability of Moral Decision Making: Evidence from the Trolley Dilemma

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove). 2021 Feb 25:17470218211001547. doi: 10.1177/17470218211001547. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The application of framing effects in the field of moral judgment has offered a golden opportunity to assess the reliability of people’s moral judgments and decisions. To date, however, these studies are still scarce and they suffer from multiple methodological issues. Therefore, the present study aims to provide further insights into the reliability of moral judgments while fixing these methodological shortcomings. In the current study, we employed the classic trolley dilemma moral decision-making paradigm to determine the extent to which moral decisions are susceptible to framing effects. A total of 1040 participants were included in the study. The data revealed that choices of participants did not significantly differ between the two frames. Equivalence tests confirmed that the associated effect size was very small. Further exploratory analyses revealed an unplanned interaction between the framing effect and the target of the framing manipulation. This result became from marginally statistically significant to insignificant following different sensitivity analyses. The implications and limitations of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

PMID:33629641 | DOI:10.1177/17470218211001547

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Breast cancer treatment-related arm lymphoedema and morbidity: A 6-year experience in an Australian tertiary breast centre

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1111/ajco.13523. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIM: Recent surgical de-escalation of the axilla in breast cancer management has led to reduced number of immediate and delayed axillary lymph node dissections (ALND) after sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLNBs). We aim to assess the postoperative impact of SLNB versus immediate and delayed ALND on arm lymphoedema and morbidity.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis from a prospectively collected institutional database was performed reviewing the rates of lymphoedema and arm morbidity in terms of shoulder restriction and patient-reported functional deficit in women undergoing axillary surgery for breast cancer between 2013 and 2018.

RESULTS: In this 776 patient cohort (564 SLNBs, 192 immediate ALNDs and 20 delayed ALNDs), at 12 months after surgery, the results are as follows: lymphoedema rate: SLNB (4.62%), immediate ALND (19.51%), delayed ALND (15.00%); axillary cording rate: SLNB (3.08%), immediate ALND (10.65%), delayed ALND (5.00%); new functional deficit: SLNB (5.58%), immediate ALND (13.66%) and delayed ALND (20%); pain SLNB (14.02%), immediate ALND (15.97%), delayed ALND (17.65%); shoulder flexion/abduction restrictions: SLNB (8.14%/5.14%), immediate ALND (16.45%/15.79%) and delayed ALND (17.65%/20.00%). ALND was associated with increased risk of developing lymphoedema, shoulder dysfunction and development of more than one morbidity. No statistically significant difference in lymphoedema and morbidity outcome was observed between immediate and delayed ALND.

CONCLUSION: Immediate and delayed ALND have comparable outcomes, but both are associated with increased postoperative arm lymphoedema and morbidity outcomes compared to SLNB alone. Preoperative appropriate selection of patients for axillary surgery treatment may improve lymphoedema outcomes in breast cancer patients.

PMID:33629541 | DOI:10.1111/ajco.13523

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Linking supportive leadership to satisfaction with care: proposing and testing a service-profit chain inspired model in the context of elderly care

J Health Organ Manag. 2021 Mar 1;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/JHOM-10-2020-0393.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As marketization has gained ground in elderly care, satisfaction with care has come to play a crucial role in designing for high-quality care. Inspired by the service-profit chain (SPC) model, the authors aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between supportive leadership practices, organizational climate, job satisfaction and service quality by predicting satisfaction with care.

DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A Swedish sample of frontline elderly care staff (n = 1,342) participated in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Mediation analyses were conducted to test the proposed model.

FINDINGS: As predicted, engaging in supportive leadership practices was directly and positively associated with satisfaction with care. In addition, as predicted, this relationship was partially mediated by organizational climate and job satisfaction. Moreover, job satisfaction predicted satisfaction with care with service quality explaining a statistically significant part of this relationship.

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers in elderly care services may improve satisfaction with care in multiple ways but primarily by showing that they care about the staff and ensuring that they are satisfied with their working conditions. Employee job satisfaction seems to be particularly crucial for satisfaction with care, beyond what can be accounted for by care service quality.

ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The authors proposed a novel service-outcome model. Adding to the original SPC model, the model in this study suggested and validated previously unexplored relationships including a direct path between leadership practices and satisfaction with service and a multiple-mediator model explaining this relationship. Also, new measures of organizational climate and supportive leadership were developed for which satisfactory reliability estimates were obtained.

PMID:33629577 | DOI:10.1108/JHOM-10-2020-0393

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Defining treatment regimens and lines of therapy using real-world data in oncology

Future Oncol. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.2217/fon-2020-1041. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Retrospective observational research relies on databases that do not routinely record lines of therapy or reasons for treatment change. Standardized approaches to estimate lines of therapy were developed and evaluated in this study. A number of rules were developed, assumptions varied and macros developed to apply to large datasets. Results were investigated in an iterative process to refine line of therapy algorithms in three different cancers (lung, colorectal and gastric). Three primary factors were evaluated and included in the estimation of lines of therapy in oncology: defining a treatment regimen, addition/removal of drugs and gap periods. Algorithms and associated Statistical Analysis Software (SAS®) macros for line of therapy identification are provided to facilitate and standardize the use of real-world databases for oncology research.

PMID:33629590 | DOI:10.2217/fon-2020-1041

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Educational Intervention Reduced Family Medicine Residents’ Intention to Request Diagnostic Tests: Results of a Controlled Trial

Med Decis Making. 2021 Feb 25:272989X21989692. doi: 10.1177/0272989X21989692. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dealing with uncertainty is a core competence for physicians. To evaluate the impact of an educational intervention on family medicine residents’ (FMRs’) intention to request diagnostic tests and their attitudes toward uncertainty.

METHODS: Nonrandomized controlled trial. Intervention group (IG) FMRs participated in interactive “dealing with uncertainty” seminars comprising statistical lessons and diagnostic reasoning. Control group (CG) FMRs participated in seminars without in-depth diagnostic lessons. FMRs completed the Dealing with Uncertainty Questionnaire (DUQ), comprising the Diagnostic Action and Diagnostic Reasoning scales. The Physicians’ Reaction to Uncertainty (PRU) questionnaire, comprising 4 scales (Anxiety Due to Uncertainty, Concern about Bad Outcomes, Reluctance to Disclose Uncertainty to Patients, and Reluctance to Disclose Mistakes to Physicians) was also completed. Follow-up was performed 3 months later. Differences were calculated with repeated-measures analysis of variance.

RESULTS: In total, 107 FMRs of the IG and 102 FMRs of the CG participated at baseline and follow-up. The mean (SD) Diagnostic Action scale score decreased from 24.0 (4.8) to 22.9 (5.1) in the IG and increased in the CG from 23.7 (5.4) to 24.1 (5.4), showing significant group difference (P = 0.006). The Diagnostic Reasoning scale increased significantly (P = 0.025) without a significant group difference (P = 0.616), from 19.2 (2.6) to 19.7 (2.4) in the IG and from 18.1 (3.3) to 18.8 (3.2) in the CG. The PRU scale Anxiety Due to Uncertainty decreased significantly (P = 0.029) without a significant group difference (P = 0.116), from 20.5 (4.8) to 18.5 (5.5) in the IG and from 19.9 (5.5) to 19.0 (6.0) in the CG.

CONCLUSION: The structured seminar reduced self-rated diagnostic test requisition. The change in Anxiety Due to Uncertainty and Diagnostic Reasoning might be due to an unspecific accompanying effect of the extra-occupational seminars for residents.

PMID:33629614 | DOI:10.1177/0272989X21989692

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

The association between Sugars Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) and lipid profile among children and youth: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies

Pediatr Obes. 2021 Feb 24:e12782. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12782. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intake and serum lipids among children and youth has been reported in several studies, but the results are still controversial.

OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we summarized the results of studies that assessed the relationship between SSBs consumption and serum lipids among children and youth in a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

METHODS: The PubMed, Web of Sciences, Cochrane and Scopus electronic databases were searched for observational studies reporting an association between SSBs intake and serum lipids among children and youth that were published before May 2020. For data extracted from cohort studies, only cross-sectional baseline data were included in the current meta-analysis. The Random effects model was used to estimate the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed with the Cochran Q test and I2 statistics.

RESULTS: In our search, 1845 studies were retrieved of which 13 studies (two cohorts and eleven cross-sectional) were included. High SSB consumption was associated with 1.21 mg/dL increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; pooled WMD: 1.21 mg/dL; 95% CI: 0.23, 2.20; P = .01), 1.45 mg/dL decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, pooled WMD: -1.46 mg/dL; 95% CI, -2.25, -0.67; P < .0001) and 2.49 mg/dL decrease in total cholesterol (TC, pooled WMD: -2.49 mg/dL; 95% CI, -2.89, -2.10; P < .0001). In dose-response meta-analysis, there was an evidence of departure from linearity in the relationship between SSB consumption and change in LDL-C (P-nonlinearity = .03) and TC (P-nonlinearity = .01). However, no departure from linearity was observed between SSB intake and change in HDL-C (P-nonlinearity = .56) or triglyceride (TG) values (P-nonlinearity = .85).

CONCLUSION: According to our results, high SSB consumption was significantly associated with higher LDL-C and lower HDL-C and TC among children and youth. However, owing to the limited number of the included studies, further well-designed interventional studies are needed to better elucidate causality.

PMID:33629539 | DOI:10.1111/ijpo.12782

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The long-term postoperative effect of the Baerveldt glaucoma drainage device and of a trabeculectomy on the corneal endothelium

Acta Ophthalmol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1111/aos.14815. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether the postoperative corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) differs between glaucoma patients who underwent Baerveldt implant (BGI) surgery and patients who underwent a trabeculectomy (TE) over 5 years ago.

METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational study including 34 patients who underwent TE and 36 patients who underwent BGI surgery 5-11 years ago, as part of a randomized clinical trial. None of the patients had a history of intraocular surgery prior to their glaucoma surgery. Central and peripheral ECD was measured by using a non-contact specular microscope.

RESULTS: Central and peripheral ECD in the TE group was 2285 ± 371 cells/mm2 (mean ± SD) and 2463 ± 476 cells/mm2 , respectively. Central and peripheral ECD in the BGI group was 1813 ± 745 cells/mm2 and 1876 ± 764 cells/mm2 , respectively. The central and peripheral ECD was statistically significantly higher in the TE group than in the BGI group (p = 0.001 for both). Additional intraocular surgical interventions were more prevalent in the BGI group (23) than in the TE group (5) (p < 0.001). In a subanalysis, without eyes that had undergone additional surgical interventions, only the peripheral ECD was statistically significantly higher in the TE group compared with the BGI group (p = 0.011). For the BGI group, a longer postoperative period resulted in a lower central ECD (r = -0.614, p = 0.004).

CONCLUSION: Long-term ECD in eyes that underwent a BGI was considerably lower compared with eyes that underwent a TE, mainly in the peripheral cornea. This suggests that BGI causes a larger decrease of ECD than TE. Additionally, the decrease after BGI appears to continue for a longer period than after TE.

PMID:33629525 | DOI:10.1111/aos.14815

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Individual risk calculator to predict lymph node metastases in patients with submucosal (T1b) esophageal adenocarcinoma: a multicenter cohort study

Endoscopy. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1055/a-1399-4989. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background and study aims: There is a risk for lymph node metastases (LNM) after endoscopic resection of early esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The aim of this study was to develop and internally validate a prediction model that estimates the individual metastases risk in patients with pT1b EAC. Patients and methods: This is a nationwide, retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Patients with pT1b EAC and treated with endoscopic resection and/or surgery between 1989 and 2016 were included. Primary endpoint was the presence of LNM in surgical resection specimen or the detection of metastases during follow-up. All resection specimens were histologically reassessed by specialized gastrointestinal pathologists. Subdistribution hazard regression analysis was used to develop a prediction model. The discriminative ability of this model was assessed using the c-statistic. Results: 248 patients with pT1b EAC were included. Metastases were seen in 78 patients, and the 5-year cumulative incidence was 30.9% (95% CI 25.1%-36.8%). The risk for metastases increased with submucosal invasion depth (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14, for every increase of 500 μm), for tumors with lymphovascular invasion (SHR 2.95, 95% CI 1.95-4.45) and for larger tumors (SHR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10-1.37, for every increase of 10 mm). The model demonstrated a good discriminative ability (c-statistic 0.81, 95% CI 0.75-0.86). Conclusions: One third of patients with pT1b EAC experienced metastases within 5 years. The probability for developing post resection metastases can be estimated with a personalized predicted risk score incorporating tumor invasion depth, tumor size and lymphovascular invasion. This model needs to be externally validated before implementation into clinical practice.

PMID:33626582 | DOI:10.1055/a-1399-4989