Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2021 Feb 19;234:110216. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110216. Online ahead of print.
The pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIE) in dogs involves dysregulated innate immune responses. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a pattern recognition receptor, plays a role in chronic inflammation. Abrogation of proinflammatory RAGE signaling by ligand binding (e.g., S100/calgranulins) to soluble RAGE (sRAGE) might also be a novel therapeutic avenue. Serum sRAGE levels are decreased in canine CIE, but gastrointestinal tissue RAGE expression has not been investigated in dogs. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the gastrointestinal mucosal RAGE expression in dogs with CIE. Further, the potential binding of RAGE to canine S100/calgranulin ligands was investigated. Epithelial RAGE expression was quantified in gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, ileal, and colonic) biopsies from 12 dogs with CIE and 9 healthy control dogs using confocal laser scanning microscopy. RAGE expression was compared between both groups of dogs and was tested for an association with patient characteristics, clinical variables, histologic lesion severity, and biomarkers of extra-gastrointestinal disease, systemic or gastrointestinal inflammation, function, or protein loss. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RAGE:S100/calgranulin binding was assessed by immunoassay and electrophoretic techniques. RAGE expression was detected in all 59 biopsies from diseased and healthy control dogs evaluated. Epithelial RAGE expression in the duodenum and colon was significantly higher in dogs with CIE than in healthy controls (p < 0.04). Compared to healthy controls, RAGE expression in dogs with CIE also tended to be higher in the ileum but lower in the stomach. A slight (statistically not significant) shift towards more basal intestinal epithelial RAGE expression was detected in CIE dogs. Serum sRAGE was proportional to epithelial RAGE expression in the duodenum (p < 0.04), and RAGE expression in the colon inversely correlated with biomarkers of protein loss in serum (both p < 0.04). Several histologic morphologic and inflammatory lesion criteria and markers of inflammation (serum C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin concentration) were related to epithelial RAGE expression in the duodenum, ileum, and/or colon. in vitro canine RAGE:S100A12 binding appeared more pronounced than RAGE:S100A8/A9 binding. This study showed a dysregulation of epithelial RAGE expression along the gastrointestinal tract in dogs with CIE. Compensatory regulations in the sRAGE/RAGE axis are an alternative explanation for these findings. The results suggest that RAGE signaling plays a role in dogs with CIE, but higher anti-inflammatory decoy receptor sRAGE levels paralleled RAGE overexpression. Canine S100/calgranulins were demonstrated to be ligands for RAGE.