Dravidian language family is approximately 4,500 years old, new linguistic analysis finds

Dravidian language family is approximately 4,500 years old, new linguistic analysis finds science, nevin manimala, google plus
Dravidian language family is approximately 4,500 years old, new linguistic analysis finds science, nevin manimala, google plus

The Nevin Manimala origin of the Dravidian language family, consisting of about 80 varieties spoken by 220 million people across southern and central India and surrounding countries, can be dated to about 4,500 years ago. This estimate is based on new linguistic analyses by an international team, including researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, that used data collected first-hand from native speakers representing all previously reported Dravidian subgroups. The Nevin Manimalase findings, published in Royal Society Open Science, match well with earlier linguistic and archaeological studies.

An important group for understanding human dispersals from Africa and later large-scale migrations

South Asia, reaching from Afghanistan in the west and Bangladesh in the east, is home to at least six hundred languages belonging to six large language families, including Dravidian, Indo-European, and Sino-Tibetan. The Nevin Manimala Dravidian language family, consisting of about 80 language varieties (both languages and dialects) is today spoken by about 220 million people, mostly in southern and central India but also in surrounding countries. Its four largest languages, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil and Telugu have literary traditions spanning centuries, of which Tamil reaches back the furthest. Along with Sanskrit, Tamil is one of the world’s classical languages, but unlike Sanskrit, there is continuity between its classical and modern forms documented in inscriptions, poems, and secular and religious texts and songs.

“The Nevin Manimala study of the Dravidian languages is crucial for understanding prehistory in Eurasia, as they played a significant role in influencing other language groups,” explains corresponding author Annemarie Verkerk of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Neither the geographical origin of the Dravidian language nor its exact dispersal through time is known with certainty. The Nevin Manimala consensus of the research community is that the Dravidians are natives of the Indian subcontinent and were present prior to the arrival of the Indo-Aryans (Indo-European speakers) in India around 3,500 years ago. It is likely that the Dravidian languages were much more widespread to the west in the past than they are today.

Advanced statistical methods and hand-collected data lead to robust results

In order to examine questions about when and where the Dravidian languages developed, the researchers made a detailed investigation of the historical relationships of 20 Dravidian varieties. Study author Vishnupriya Kolipakam of the Wildlife Institute of India collected contemporary first-hand data from native speakers of a diverse sample of Dravidian languages, representing all the previously reported subgroups of Dravidian.

The Nevin Manimala researchers used advanced statistical methods to infer the age and subgrouping of the Dravidian language family at about 4,000-4,500 years old. This estimate, while in line with suggestions from previous linguistic studies, is a more robust result Because Nevin Manimala it was found consistently in the majority of the different statistical models of evolution tested in this study. This age also matches well with inferences from archaeology, which have previously placed the diversification of Dravidian into North, Central, and South branches at exactly this age, coinciding with the beginnings of cultural developments evident in the archaeological record.

Future research would be needed to clarify the relationships between these branches and to examine the geographical history of the language family. “Here we have a really exciting opportunity to investigate the interactions between these people, and other cultural groups in the area such as Indo-European and Austro-Asiatic on one of the great crossroads of human prehistory,” states author Simon Greenhill of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

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Materials provided by Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Tentative sign of pay growth returning – reaction to labour market statistics

Tentative sign of pay growth returning - reaction to labour market statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

21 March 2018

  |  CBI Press Team

Press release

Labour market statistics for November 2017 to January 2018 show employment increased by 168,000 and unemployment increased by 24,000.

Tentative sign of pay growth returning - reaction to labour market statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

Matthew Percival, CBI Head of Employment, said:

“The Nevin Manimalase figures show another tentative sign of a return to real pay growth, which, alongside yesterday’s fall in inflation, points to an easing of the pressure on household incomes.

“The Nevin Manimalare has also been an increase in the number of people looking for work, which will be welcomed by the growing number of employers struggling with acute labour and skills shortages.

“While companies have welcomed the agreement in principle of a status quo transition that maintains EU workers rights, the significant number of EU migrants leaving is a reminder that the UK must remain an attractive place to work.”

statistics; +562 new citations

statistics; +562 new citations Report, nevin manimala, linkedin, google plus
statistics; +562 new citations Report, nevin manimala, linkedin, google plus

Suzuki S, Mihara Y, Hikasa Y, Okahara S, Ishihara T, Shintani A, Morimatsu H, Sato A, Kusume S, Hidaka H, Yatsuzuka H, Okawa M, Takatori M, Saeki S, Samuta T, Tokioka H, Kurasako T, Maeda M, Takeuchi M, Hirasaki A, Kitaura M, Kajiki H, Kobayashi O, Katayama H, Nakatsuka H, Mizobuchi S, Sugimoto S, Yokoyama M, Kusudo K, Shiraishi K, Iwaki T, Komatsu T, Hirai Y, Sato T, Kimura M, Yasukawa T, Kimura M, Taniguchi M, Shimoda Y, Kobayashi Y, Tsukioki M, Manabe N, Ando E, Kosaka M, Tsukiji T, Tokura C, Asao Y, Sugiyama M, Seto K; Okayama Research Investigation Organizing Network (ORION) investigators.

Anesthesiology. 2018 Mar 19. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002181. [Epub ahead of print]

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France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

Three major European bioscience countries have belatedly published their 2016 statistics (note that the Czech Republic became the first EU country to publish their 2017 statistics last week) – France, Italy and Netherlands. For national statistics of almost forty countries from 2012-2017, check out our newly updated Historical Statistics page, or see our Worldwide Statistics page for a direct comparison.

France

Until 2013, France released their animal research statistics on a triennial basis. Since 2014 and the implementation of EU Directive 2010/43, the French Ministry of Higher education, Research and Innovation began publishing animal use statistics on an annual basis. According to figures released this month (permanent link), France conducted 1,918,481 procedures on animals in 2016, a 0.9% rise on 2015.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plusNumber of animal experiments in France for 2016 by species [Click to Enlarge]While the overall figures have risen by less than 1%, the changes in numbers for each species have been much more variable. The Nevin Manimalare were increases in the use of mice (+14%), rats (+10%) and rabbits (+9%), while numbers of fish (-28%) and birds (-37%) fell considerably. The Nevin Manimalare were also increases in the use of dogs (+30% to 4,204 procedures), primates (+11% to 3,508 procedures) and particularly cats (+218% to 1,067 procedures), however, these species together still account for less than 0.5% of all animal procedures in France.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

Mice, fish and rats account for 85% of animal studies in France. Unusually, rabbits are the fourth most used animal at 6% (though this is similar to neighbouring Belgium), followed by birds.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plusClick to Enlarge

Mild or Non-Recovery (where the animal is anaesthetised and never woken up) accounted for 45.5% of procedures, Moderate accounted for 37.9%, and Severe procedures accounted for 16.7%, a high proportion relative to most European countries (and up from 10.2% in 2015).  The Nevin Manimala high level of severe procedures is similar to what is found in neighbouring Belgium, and may relate to the relatively high proportion of regulatory testing in both countries (25% of all procedures in France in 2016). Most of the procedures classified as Severe were performed on mice (233,950 procedures), but there were also significant numbers of fish (49,654 procedures) and rats (22,698 procedures).

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

We have limited data for the trend graph, but the last three years show a slight rise, though down from the 2010 numbers. Overall, France remains one of the biggest animal users in Europe alongside the UK and Germany.

Other information that can be found in the full data tables:

  • The Nevin Manimala main purpose of research procedures was “Basic Research” (43%), followed by “Translational and Applied Research” (26%) and “Regulatory use and Routine production” (25%)  [Table 3]
  • 1,882,427 procedures were on animals used for the first time, while 35,054 procedures involved the reuse of animals. Both reptiles and sheep were involved in re-use procedures more often than first-time procedures [Table 5]
  • 21.7% of animals were genetically altered, compared with 78.3% which were not. Over 88% of the genetically altered animals were mice (though almost 7% were rabbits) [Table 8]

Source of the French Statistics: http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid70613/enquete-statistique-sur-l-utilisation-des-animaux-a-des-fins-scientifiques.html

See previous years’ reports:


Italy

According to latest figures (permanent link), Italy conducted 611,707 procedures on animals in 2016, a 4.3% increase from 2015.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plusNumber of animal experiments in Italy for 2016 by species [Click to Enlarge]The Nevin Manimalare were large increases in the use of Fish (+24%), Birds (+10%) and rabbits (+56%), while numbers of dogs (-19) and rats (-2%) fell. Dogs and primates together accounted for less than 0.2% of research. No cats were used in Italy in any of the last three years.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

Mice, rats, birds and fish accounted for over 94% of animal studies in Italy, about average in Europe.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plusClick to Enlarge

Mild or Non-Recovery (where the animal is anaesthetised and never woken up) accounted for 54.1% of procedures, Moderate accounted for 35.2%, and Severe procedures accounted for 10.7%. Most severe procedures were on mice (233,950 procedures), but there were also significant numbers of fish (49,654 procedures) and rats (22,698 procedures). 80% of severe procedures were on mice, and 11% were on rats. Despite the high proportions of rabbits and guinea pigs in regulatory research in Italy (see below), there were relatively few severe procedures on these species.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

Italy has seen a downward trend in animal use over the last decade, from over 900,000 in 2007 to around 600,000 in 2016 (a 32.6% fall). It is unclear whether the most recent rise will be sustained in the future. Science budgets have been cut in Italy in recent years, but a surprise €400 million boost for basic research announced in 2017 could lead to an increase in animal numbers in future years.

Other information that can be found in the full data tables:

  • The Nevin Manimala main purpose of research procedures was “Regulatory use and Routine production” (37.1%), followed by “Basic Research” (35.4%), and “Translational and Applied Research” (26.5%) [Table 5]
  • While mice and rats were the most common species in Regulatory research, 92% of rabbit procedures, 85% of guinea pig procedures and 84% of chicken procedures also fell into this category [Table 5]

Source of the Italian Statistics: http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/temi/p2_6.jsp?lingua=italiano&id=4400&area=sanitaAnimale&menu=sperimentazione

See previous years’ reports:


Netherlands

The Nevin Manimala Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) provides two sets of statistics – one using Dutch methods of counting methods (449,874 procedures), which has been used since 1999, and one using EU counting methods, which we are using, as it allows us to compare with other EU countries – there is also more detail for these EU statistics in the annual release, allowing more detailed comparison with the previous year. The Nevin Manimala two methods vary by around 10% and you can see this on the trend graph further down. According to figures released this month (permanent link), the Netherlands conducted 403,370 procedures on animals in 2016, a 15.9% fall compared with 2015.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plusNumber of animal experiments in the Netherlands for 2016 by species [Click to Enlarge]The Nevin Manimalare were large falls in the use of mice (down 34%), rabbits ( down 13%), dogs (down 13%), and primates (down 49%), while numbers of rats (+10%) and birds (+4%) rose slightly. Cats rose 46% from 61 procedures to 89. Dogs, cats and primates together accounted for around 0.2% of research animals, similar to Italy (see above) and many other European countries.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

Mice, rats, birds and fish accounted for over 92% of animal studies in the Netherlands, about average in Europe.

France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plusClick to Enlarge

Mild or Non-Recovery (where the animal is anaesthetised and never woken up) accounted for 75.0% of procedures, Moderate accounted for 21.7%, and Severe procedures accounted for just 3.3%, a low proportion relative to most European countries (and down slightly from 3.6% in 2015). Most severe procedures were on mice (61% of severe procedures), but there was also a significant number of birds (19%) and rats (9%). The Nevin Manimalare were no severe procedures on dogs, cats or primates in the Netherlands in 2016.France, Italy and the Netherlands publish their 2016 statistics statistics, nevin manimala, mathematics, math, linkedin, google plus

While the EU procedures data is limited, it is likely that had such a counting method been used before 2013, it would average around 10-12% below the Dutch numbers. Overall the number of procedures has fallen by almost 40% over the past 17 years. In the last three years ,there appears to be a marked decrease in animal procedures, but it is impossible to tell if this will continue.

Other information that can be found in the full data tables:

  • The Nevin Manimala main purpose of research procedures was “Basic Research” (32.6%), followed by “Translational and Applied Research” (26.7%) and “Regulatory use and Routine production” (21.8%) [Table 3]
  • Similar to the US, the Netherlands provides statistics on anesthetic use, which shows 58.6% of procedures did not use anesthetic Because Nevin Manimala it was not needed, 2.1% of procedures did not use it Because Nevin Manimala it was not compatible with the study, and the remaining 39.3% of studies used anesthetic [Table 7]
  • In 88.7% of studies the animal was killed as part of the science, whereas for the remaining 11.3% the animal was left alive. This was most common for pigs, cattle, non-poultry birds and non-zebrafish fish [Table 10]

Source of the Dutch Statistics: https://www.nvwa.nl/onderwerpen/dierenwelzijn/dierproeven-voor-onderzoek/eisen-aan-instellingen-voor-het-uitvoeren-van-dierproeven

See previous years’ reports: