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Yoga Therapy as an Adjuvant in Management of Asthma

Indian J Pediatr. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s12098-021-03675-y. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of yoga on control of asthma in children with bronchial asthma.

METHODS: This hospital-based interventional randomized controlled trial conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at a tertiary care center of North India from November 2017 to October 2018 enrolled 140 newly diagnosed cases of asthma of age 10-16 y who were randomly divided into two groups. Seventy children in the case group practiced yoga under supervision for a period of 3 mo in addition to pharmacological treatment. Seventy controls received only pharmacological treatment. Pulmonary-function tests were done at baseline, 6 wk, and 12 wk along with quality of life (QOL) assessment by Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). The outcome measures assessed were forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). QOL evaluation was done in 3 domains: activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function.

RESULTS: The asthmatic children practicing yoga have shown significant improvement in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and PEFR which was better as compared to controls. Improvement was also noted in mean-PAQLQ score in cases which was statistically significantly better as compared to controls.

CONCLUSION: Yoga appears to have significant positive effect on control of asthma measured by pulmonary-function test and QOL. Therefore yoga therapy can be recommended as an adjuvant in management of asthma along with standard pharmacological management.

PMID:33625666 | DOI:10.1007/s12098-021-03675-y

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Intraoral radiograph anatomical region classification using neural networks

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s11548-021-02321-4. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dental radiography represents 13% of all radiological diagnostic imaging. Eliminating the need for manual classification of digital intraoral radiographs could be especially impactful in terms of time savings and metadata quality. However, automating the task can be challenging due to the limited variation and possible overlap of the depicted anatomy. This study attempted to use neural networks to automate the classification of anatomical regions in intraoral radiographs among 22 unique anatomical classes.

METHODS: Thirty-six literature-based neural network models were systematically developed and trained with full supervision and three different data augmentation strategies. Only libre software and limited computational resources were utilized. The training and validation datasets consisted of 15,254 intraoral periapical and bite-wing radiographs, previously obtained for diagnostic purposes. All models were then comparatively evaluated on a separate dataset as regards their classification performance. Top-1 accuracy, area-under-the-curve and F1-score were used as performance metrics. Pairwise comparisons were performed among all models with Mc Nemar’s test.

RESULTS: Cochran’s Q test indicated a statistically significant difference in classification performance across all models (p < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed that while most models performed adequately on the task, advanced architectures used in deep learning such as VGG16, MobilenetV2 and InceptionResnetV2 were more robust to image distortions than those in the baseline group (MLPs, 3-block convolutional models). Advanced models exhibited classification accuracy ranging from 81 to 89%, F1-score between 0.71 and 0.86 and AUC of 0.86 to 0.94.

CONCLUSIONS: According to our findings, automated classification of anatomical classes in digital intraoral radiographs is feasible with an expected top-1 classification accuracy of almost 90%, even for images with significant distortions or overlapping anatomy. Model architecture, data augmentation strategies, the use of pooling and normalization layers as well as model capacity were identified as the factors most contributing to classification performance.

PMID:33625664 | DOI:10.1007/s11548-021-02321-4

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Does Famotidine Reduce the Risk of Progression to Severe Disease, Death, and Intubation for COVID-19 Patients? A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

Dig Dis Sci. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s10620-021-06872-z. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Famotidine was reported to potentially provide benefits to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, it remains controversial whether it is effective in treating COVID-19.

AIMS: This study aimed to explore whether famotidine use is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients.

METHODS: This study was registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (ID: CRD42020213536). A comprehensive search was performed to identify relevant studies up to October 2020. I-squared statistic and Q-test were utilized to assess the heterogeneity. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated through the random effects or fixed effects model according to the heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias assessment were also conducted.

RESULTS: Five studies including 36,635 subjects were included. We found that famotidine use was associated with a statistically non-significant reduced risk of progression to severe disease, death, and intubation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients (pooled RR was 0.82, 95% CI = 0.52-1.30, P = 0.40).

CONCLUSION: Famotidine has no significant protective effect in reducing the risk of developing serious illness, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients. More original studies are needed to further clarify whether it is associated with reduced risk of the severity, death, and intubation for COVID-19 patients.

PMID:33625613 | DOI:10.1007/s10620-021-06872-z

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An investigation into the impact of nine catchment characteristics on the accuracy of two phosphorus load apportionment models

Environ Monit Assess. 2021 Feb 24;193(3):142. doi: 10.1007/s10661-021-08875-9.

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) load apportionment models (LAMs), requiring only spatially and temporally paired P and flow (Q) measurements, provide outputs of variable accuracy using long-term monthly datasets. Using a novel approach to investigate the impact of catchment characteristics on accuracy variation, 91 watercourses’ Q-P datasets were applied to two LAMs, BM and GM, and bootstrapped to ascertain standard errors (SEs). Random forest and regression analysis on data pertaining to catchments’ land use, steepness, size, base flow and sinuosity were used to identify the individual relative importance of a variable on SE. For BM, increasing urban cover was influential on raising SEs, accounting for c.19% of observed variation, whilst analysis for GM found no individually important catchment characteristic. Assessment of model fit evidenced BM consistently outperformed GM, modelling P values to ±10% of actual P values in 85.7% of datasets, as opposed to 17.6% by GM. Further catchment characteristics are needed to account for SE variation within both models, whilst interaction between variables may also be present. Future research should focus on quantifying these possible interactions and should expand catchment characteristics included within the random forest. Both LAMs must also be tested on a wide range of high temporal resolution datasets to ascertain if they can adequately model storm events in catchments with diverse characteristics.

PMID:33625605 | DOI:10.1007/s10661-021-08875-9

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Conversion of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy after weight loss failure into laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass: short-term safety and efficacy and effect of indications on outcome

Surg Endosc. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00464-021-08374-5. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Revisional surgery after failed laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is growing and laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (LOAGB) has been proposed as a revisional procedure due to its combined restrictive and malabsorptive effects. The aim is to study short-term complications and weight loss (WL) results of the revisional LOAGB after LSG for the two-weight loss failure (WLF) types [insufficient weight loss (IWL) and weight regain (WR)] and to assess the possible effects of these two types of failure and gastric tube anatomy on the final outcome.

METHODS: The data of 28 patients who completed 1-year follow-up for their revisional LOAGB after their failed LSG were assessed and statistically correlated to leakage and one year WL results.

RESULTS: Operative time was 96 ± 17.4 min. Leakage occurred in 2 patients (7.1%); the small number of leak patients does not allow statistical analysis for leakage. Percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at one year was 79.0 ± 14.4%; percentage of total weight loss (%TWL) was 31.7 ± 6.4%. %EWL was 84.2 ± 13.1 with IWL and 73.0 ± 13.9 with WR (P = 0.036). %TWL was 35.0 ± 5.2 with IWL and 27.8 ± 5.5 with WR (P = 0.001). %TWL at persistent fundus, diffusely dilated, and nondilated stomach were 38.98 ± 4.57, 31.3 ± 5.33, and 28.54 ± 5.91, respectively (P = 0.006).

CONCLUSION: LOAGB is a highly effective and safe procedure as a revision after LSG with WLF. Patients with IWL and patients with persistent fundus lost more weight than those with WR and those with diffuse stomach dilation or nondilation, respectively.

PMID:33625589 | DOI:10.1007/s00464-021-08374-5

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Risk factors for refracture of the femoral shaft in children after removal of external fixation

J Orthop Traumatol. 2021 Feb 24;22(1):4. doi: 10.1186/s10195-021-00569-9.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: External fixation is the primary treatment option in children for femoral shaft fractures, such as open femoral or multiple fractures. One complication is refracture, which is the biggest limitation of fixation devices. This study aims to investigate the risk factors associated with refracture after the removal of external fixation devices and decrease the frequency of refracture.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 165 patients treated at our hospital for fresh femoral shaft fractures with external fixation between May 2009 and February 2018 were included in this study. Patients with pathological fractures, fractures of the femoral neck, fractures that were fixed using plates or elastic stable intramedullary nailing, and old fractures, as well as those who underwent postoperative femoral surgery were excluded. Potential risk factors included: patient age, gender, and weight, fracture sides, open or closed fracture, fracture sites, reduction methods, operation time, perioperative bleeding, number and diameter of the screws, and immobilization time. These factors were identified by univariate and logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS: Femoral shaft refracture developed in 24 patients. Univariate analysis revealed that refracture was not statistically significantly associated with any of the above factors, except AO Pediatric Comprehensive Classification of Long Bone Fractures (PCCF) classification type 32-D/4.2 and L2/L3 ratio (L2, length of femur fixed by the two screws farthest from the fracture line; L3, the total length from the greater trochanter to the distal end of femur; P < 0.001 and P = 0.0141, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that PCCF classification type 32-D/4.2 and L2/L3 ratio were also independent risk factors for femoral refracture.

CONCLUSIONS: Femoral shaft refracture is relatively common in children treated with external fixation. Because of the limited number of cases in this study, we cautiously concluded that the PCCF classification type 32-D/4.2 and L2/L3 ratio were independent risk factors for femoral shaft refracture in these patients.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

PMID:33625585 | DOI:10.1186/s10195-021-00569-9

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The impact of interrupting enzyme replacement therapy in late-onset Pompe disease

J Neurol. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10475-z. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the GAA gene, leading to progressive weakness of locomotor and respiratory muscles. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), administered every second week, has been proven to slow down disease progression and stabilize pulmonary function. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany, ERT was interrupted at our centre for 29 days. As reports on ERT discontinuation in LOPD are rare, our study aimed to analyse the impact of ERT interruption on the change in clinical outcome.

METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study in 12 LOPD patients. Clinical assessments were performed after ERT interruption and after the next three consecutive infusions. We assessed motor function by muscle strength testing, a 6-minute-walk-test, pulmonary function tests, and adverse events. For statistical analysis, an estimated baseline was calculated based on the individual yearly decline.

RESULTS: The mean time of ERT interruption was 49.42 days (SD ± 12.54). During ERT interruption, seven patients reported 14 adverse events and two of them were severe. Frequent symptoms were reduced muscle endurance/increased muscle fatigability and shortness of breath/worsening of breathing impairment. After ERT interruption, significant deterioration was found for MIP%pred (p = 0.026) and MRC%pred, as well as a trend to clinical deterioration in FVC%pred and the 6MWT%pred.

CONCLUSION: Interruption of ERT was associated with a deterioration in the core clinical outcome measures. Therefore, an interruption of ERT should be kept as short as possible.

PMID:33625582 | DOI:10.1007/s00415-021-10475-z

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Angiographic results of surgical or endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a systematic review and inter-observer reliability study

Neuroradiology. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00234-021-02676-0. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Results of surgical or endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms are often assessed using angiography. A reliable method to report results irrespective of treatment modality is needed to enable comparisons. Our goals were to systematically review existing classification systems, and to propose a 3-point classification applicable to both treatments and assess its reliability.

METHODS: We conducted two systematic reviews on classification systems of angiographic results after clipping or coiling to select a simple 3-category scale that could apply to both treatments. We then circulated an electronic portfolio of angiograms of clipped (n=30) or coiled (n=30) aneurysms, and asked raters to evaluate the degree of occlusion using this scale. Raters were also asked to choose an appropriate follow-up management for each patient based on the degree of occlusion. Agreement was assessed using Krippendorff’s α statistics (αK), and relationship between occlusion grade and clinical management was analyzed using Fisher’s exact and Cramer’s V tests.

RESULTS: The systematic reviews found 70 different grading scales with heterogeneous reliability (kappa values from 0.12 to 1.00). The 60-patient portfolio was independently evaluated by 19 raters of diverse backgrounds (neurosurgery, radiology, and neurology) and experience. There was substantial agreement (αK=0.76, 95%CI, 0.67-0.83) between raters, regardless of background, experience, or treatment used. Intra-rater agreement ranged from moderate to almost perfect. A strong relationship was found between angiographic grades and management decisions (Cramer’s V: 0.80±0.12).

CONCLUSION: A simple 3-point scale demonstrated sufficient reliability to be used in reporting aneurysm treatments or in evaluating treatment results in comparative randomized trials.

PMID:33625550 | DOI:10.1007/s00234-021-02676-0

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Does smoking affect level of seropositivity in RA? A post-HOC global and inter-country analysis of COMORA cohort

Rheumatol Int. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00296-021-04791-w. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

To study the association of smoking status and the level of seropositivity in RA patients from COMORA Cohort. A post hoc analysis of COMORA database included 3439 RA patients was performed. Current smokers or recently quitted (< 3 years) were initially compared to those who never smoked or stopped > 3 years (Group I vs. II) regarding their seropositivity status (high positive, low positive and negative) for Rheumatoid Factor (RF) or Anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA). A further comparison was made between current smokers (Group III) and never smoked patients (Group IV). Analysis was also done on the individual country level for the 17 countries included in the COMORA study. Out of 3439 RA patients, 705 (20.5%) were smokers (group I), and 2734 (79.5%) were non-smokers (group II). Significantly more patients in group I, 442 (62.7%), had high levels of seropositivity than those in group II, 1556 (56.9%), [P = 0.006, OR 1.27 (95% CI, 1.07-1.5)]. More current smoker patients (group III-286 out of 456 “62.7%”) had high levels of seropositivity than never smoked patients (group IV-1236 out of 2191 “56.4%”), with significant difference [P = 0.013, OR 1.3 (95% CI, 1.06-1.6)]. In 11 countries, higher proportions of patients with high level of seropositivity in group I was found, with statistical significance in four countries. Smoking was associated with higher level of seropositivity in patients with RA in this post hoc analysis, both on a global level and in certain individual countries. As smoking is a modifiable risk factor, studying the effects of quitting smoking on level of seropositivity and other disease parameters is warranted.

PMID:33625544 | DOI:10.1007/s00296-021-04791-w

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Sarcopenia and the risk of adverse events in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a systematic review

Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2021 Feb 24. doi: 10.1007/s00262-021-02888-6. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia has been associated with negative clinical outcomes in cancer patients, particularly response to treatment and survival. The exponential growth in the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has led to an increase in the reporting of both adverse events in general (AEs) and immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which are unintended immune-related phenomenon that take place as a result of checkpoint blockade. However, there are no systematic reviews evaluating the relationship between sarcopenia and the risk of developing AEs and irAEs in cancer patients on ICI therapies.

METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and grey literature, repositories, websites Open Grey, Google Scholar, and abstracts of major international congresses were searched up to April 2020 for observational studies on sarcopenia and both AEs and irAEs in patients treated with ICIs. Study quality was assessed with The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020197178.

RESULTS: One hundred and thirteen discrete articles were identified. Seven studies were included after evaluation of the eligibility criteria. Important sources of heterogeneity including the specific cut-points defining sarcopenia, sample size, inclusion and exclusion criteria, treatment regimen, and baseline demographics were evaluated and accounted for accordingly.

CONCLUSION: Most of the included studies showed an increased risk of AEs with use of ICIs in cancer patients with sarcopenia, and in the majority of these, the increase was statistically significant. Due to the small number of available studies and the expanding use of ICIs, additional research is warranted.

PMID:33625531 | DOI:10.1007/s00262-021-02888-6