Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Longitudinal associations between problematic Internet use, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2022 Jan 15. doi: 10.1007/s00787-022-01944-5. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Problematic Internet use (PIU) has a negative impact on self-esteem among adolescents, thereby making them be vulnerable to developing depressive symptoms. However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies focusing on the process. This study aimed to explore the longitudinal associations between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. A total of 1,736 adolescents completed this longitudinal study. The baseline survey was conducted in 2019, and the follow-up surveys were performed at 1-year and 2-year later. PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were measured. A cascade model was used to examine the longitudinal associations between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. The mean age of participants was 13.6 (1.5) years at baseline. The final results observed significant within-time associations between PIU, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms at each time point. PIU and low level of self-esteem could predict subsequent depressive symptoms among adolescents, and depressive symptoms were also associated with subsequent PIU and self-esteem. Both PIU and self-esteem show bidirectional predictions with depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents. Schools and parents should give more attention to adolescents prone to developing depressive symptoms and more social support to reduce their negative emotions. Health-related professionals should incorporate practical knowledge and skills into the education of adolescents to help them better control Internet use, attenuating the risk of future depressive symptoms.

PMID:35034212 | DOI:10.1007/s00787-022-01944-5

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Aortic haemodynamics: the effects of habitual endurance exercise, age and muscle sympathetic vasomotor outflow in healthy men

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2022 Jan 16. doi: 10.1007/s00421-021-04883-2. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We determined the effect of habitual endurance exercise and age on aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), augmentation pressure (AP) and systolic blood pressure (aSBP), with statistical adjustments of aPWV and AP for heart rate and aortic mean arterial pressure, when appropriate. Furthermore, we assessed whether muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) correlates with AP in young and middle-aged men.

METHODS: Aortic PWV, AP, aortic blood pressure (applanation tonometry; SphygmoCor) and MSNA (peroneal microneurography) were recorded in 46 normotensive men who were either young or middle-aged and endurance-trained runners or recreationally active nonrunners (10 nonrunners and 13 runners within each age-group). Between-group differences and relationships between variables were assessed via ANOVA/ANCOVA and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, respectively.

RESULTS: Adjusted aPWV and adjusted AP were similar between runners and nonrunners in both age groups (all, P > 0.05), but higher with age (all, P < 0.001), with a greater effect size for the age-related difference in AP in runners (Hedges’ g, 3.6 vs 2.6). aSBP was lower in young (P = 0.009; g = 2.6), but not middle-aged (P = 0.341; g = 1.1), runners compared to nonrunners. MSNA burst frequency did not correlate with AP in either age group (young: r = 0.00, P = 0.994; middle-aged: r = – 0.11, P = 0.604).

CONCLUSION: There is an age-dependent effect of habitual exercise on aortic haemodynamics, with lower aSBP in young runners compared to nonrunners only. Statistical adjustment of aPWV and AP markedly influenced the outcomes of this study, highlighting the importance of performing these analyses. Further, peripheral sympathetic vasomotor outflow and AP were not correlated in young or middle-aged normotensive men.

PMID:35034204 | DOI:10.1007/s00421-021-04883-2

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Booster administration can make a difference in the antibody response to intradermal foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle

Arch Virol. 2022 Jan 16. doi: 10.1007/s00705-021-05273-x. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Routine vaccination is one of the preferred methods of protection against this disease in endemic countries. For protective immunity against FMD, repeated immunizations with frequent administration are required. Intradermal immunization has many advantages over intramuscular administration of vaccines. In this study, a commercial tetravalent FMD vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 206 was administered to cattle via the intramuscular (2 mL [n = 10] and 0.5 mL [n = 9]) and intradermal (0.5 mL [n = 11]) routes. Booster doses were administered 28 days later using the same vaccine and routes. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-vaccination (pv) and at 30 and 60 days post-booster. Homologous and heterologous virus neutralization tests and liquid-phase blocking and isotype ELISAs were used to measure the antibody response. The results showed that intradermal administration of quarter doses of the vaccine provides an equal or better virus neutralization antibody response than intramuscular administration of the same dose of vaccine after booster administration in cattle. This means that four times more cattle can be immunized with the same amount of vaccine using the intradermal route without compromising immunity.

PMID:35034176 | DOI:10.1007/s00705-021-05273-x

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Effect of cognitive task complexity on dual task postural stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Exp Brain Res. 2022 Jan 16. doi: 10.1007/s00221-021-06299-y. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The dual task experimental paradigm is used to probe the attentional requirements of postural control. However, findings of dual task postural studies have been inconsistent with many studies even reporting improvement in postural stability during dual tasking and thus raising questions about cognitive involvement in postural control. A U-shaped non-linear relationship has been hypothesized between cognitive task complexity and dual task postural stability suggesting that the inconsistent results might have arisen from the use of cognitive tasks of varying complexities. To systematically review experimental studies that compared the effect of simple and complex cognitive tasks on postural stability during dual tasking, we searched seven electronic databases for relevant studies published between 1980 to September 2020. 33 studies involving a total of 1068 participants met the review’s inclusion criteria, 17 of which were included in meta-analysis (healthy young adults: 15 studies, 281 participants; Stroke patients: 2 studies, 52 participants). Narrative synthesis of the findings in studies involving healthy old adults was carried out. Our result suggests that in healthy population, cognitive task complexity may not determine whether postural stability increases or decreases during dual tasking (effect of cognitive task complexity was not statistically significant; P > 0.1), and thus the U-shaped non-linear hypothesis is not supported. Rather, differential effect of dual tasking on postural stability was observed mainly based on the age of the participants and postural task challenge, implying that the involvement of cognitive resources or higher cortical functions in the control of postural stability may largely depends on these two factors.

PMID:35034175 | DOI:10.1007/s00221-021-06299-y

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Bladder cancer in patients with neurogenic bladder disorder: a comparative study of different etiologies

World J Urol. 2022 Jan 15. doi: 10.1007/s00345-021-03922-z. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to conduct a comparative study of different etiologies of neurogenic bladder disorders (NBDs) in patients with bladder cancer (BC) regarding patient- and tumor-related parameters and their oncological outcome.

METHODS: Out of 98 patients with bladder tumors and neurogenic disease, 23 patients with BC and NBDs from Jan 1, 2010, to Dec 31, 2020, were included. The different etiologies of NBDs were merged in three groups based on the level of the nervous system (NS)-lesion: (i) central (n = 6), (ii) spinal cord (n = 10), and (iii) peripheral lesions (n = 7).

RESULTS: Patients with lesions at the spinal cord level were younger at the time of BC diagnosis compared to patients with central or peripheral NS lesions (54 vs. 68 vs. 78 years, p = 0.0219). However, the latency to malignant transformation was more than twice as long (33 vs. 15 years, p = 0.0108). Most tumors were muscle-invasive or locally advanced BCs (62%) and presented lymph node metastases (55%), resulting in a poor mean overall survival of 30.9 ± 3.6 months. No significant differences regarding histopathology, tumor stage, and oncological outcome could be observed between the groups.

CONCLUSION: Patients with NBDs have a poor prognosis regardless of their etiology or the level of NS lesion. Patients with spinal cord lesions, including congenital NBDs, appear to develop BC at a young age, but compared to other etiologies latency from NBD to BC is longer.

PMID:35034168 | DOI:10.1007/s00345-021-03922-z

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Factors associated with poor maternal health care services utilization in Eswatini: A secondary analysis of a nationally representative household survey

Midwifery. 2022 Jan 7;106:103250. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2022.103250. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with poor maternal health care services utilization (MHCSU) i.e., having < 4 antenatal care (ANC) visits, not delivering at a health facility, and not receiving institutional postnatal care (PNC).

METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2014 Eswatini Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey. Participants were childbearing women (15-49 years) who had a live birth in the past two years preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed for each outcome variable.

RESULTS: The prevalence of poor MHCSU was 22.1% (202/903) for ANC, 10.4% (102/899) for institutional delivery or intrapartum care (IPC), and 26.9% (123/598) for PNC. Being younger, having a low education level, being never married, having no access to mass media, being a household head of low education, coming from a household of poor/middle wealth index, being a primipara, having an unintended pregnancy, and having a longer length of stay in the postpartum ward were significantly associated with poor MHCSU.

CONCLUSION: Midwives should pay special attention to women who present with the factors associated with poor MHCSU identified in this study, as early as the first booking for ANC to intervene early.

PMID:35032933 | DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2022.103250

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

The effect of gap duration on the perception of fluent versus disfluent speech

J Fluency Disord. 2022 Jan 7;71:105896. doi: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2022.105896. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gap duration contributes to the perception of utterances as fluent or disfluent, but few studies have systematically investigated the impact of gap duration on fluency judgments. The purposes of this study were to determine how gaps impact disfluency perception, and how listener background and experience impact these judgments.

METHODS: Sixty participants (20 adults who stutter [AWS], 20 speech-language pathologists [SLPs], and 20 naïve listeners) listened to four tokens of the utterance, “Buy Bobby a puppy,” produced at typical speech rates. The gap duration between “Buy” and “Bobby” was systematically manipulated with gaps ranging from 23.59 ms to 325.44 ms. Participants identified stimuli as fluent or disfluent.

RESULTS: The disfluency threshold – the point at which 50 % of trials were categorized as disfluent – occurred at a gap duration of 126.46 ms, across all participants and tokens. The SLPs exhibited higher disfluency thresholds than the AWS and the naïve listeners.

CONCLUSION: This study determined, based on the specific set of stimuli used, when the perception of utterances tends to shift from fluent to disfluent. Group differences indicated that SLPs are less inclined to identify disfluencies in speech potentially because they aim to be less critical of speech that deviates from “typical”.

PMID:35032922 | DOI:10.1016/j.jfludis.2022.105896

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Validity and reliability of the Greek version of modified Baecke questionnaire

Public Health. 2022 Jan 12;203:58-64. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.11.017. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to translate and investigate the validity and reliability of the modified Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire (mBQ) in the Greek adult population.

STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-cultural study.

METHODS: The cross-cultural adaptation of the mBQ was performed according to official guidelines. The prefinal Greek translation was tested in 30 healthy participants. The reliability was determined (n = 100) by filling out the mBQ, two times, 1 week apart. For validation (n = 45), the scores between the mBQ and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were compared, and the correlation between mBQ and VO2max and between mBQ and interview (METS) were assessed.

RESULTS: High statistical significant of test-retest reliability was found (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84; standard error of measurement = 0.48; smallest detectable difference = 16.7%; Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92). Statistical significant correlation between the mBQ and the IPAQ (r = 0.425, P = 0.005), high correlation between the mBQ and METS (r = 0.691, P = 0.000), and moderate correlation between mBQ and VO2max (r = 0.388, P = 0.08) were found.

CONCLUSION: The Greek mBQ was found to be reliable and valid for assessing the level of physical activity in the Greek population. CLINICALTRIALS.

GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT04890756.

PMID:35032916 | DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2021.11.017

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Association between kidney function and intracerebral hematoma volume

J Clin Neurosci. 2022 Jan 12;96:101-106. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2021.12.022. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Renal dysfunction has been reported to be associated with larger hematoma volume in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) due to concomitant nutritional imbalances and platelet dysfunction; however, this association remains controversial. This study analyzed the association between potential risk factors and hematoma volume in patients with ICH. This retrospective cohort study used data from 456 patients with ICH at a single comprehensive stroke center. We assessed the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Controlling Nutritional Status score with hematoma volume using multivariable non-linear regression models. The effect of the use of antithrombotic agents on hematoma volume was analyzed using outcome-adaptive double/debiased machine learning approach, considering many covariates. The median and interquartile range of age and eGFR were 64 (54-75) years and 56.1 (39.3-66.7) mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The multivariable non-linear regression model showed that (1) eGFR and hematoma volume had a positive linear association, which was not statistically significant, and (2) nutritional status was positively associated with hematoma volume, although not significantly. Outcome-adaptive double/debiased machine learning revealed that patients receiving antithrombotic agents did not present with significantly larger hematoma volume than those who were not receiving antithrombotic agents (estimated mean difference of hematoma volume [95% confidence interval] = 15.32 [-6.02 to 36.65]). Our analysis shows no statistically or clinically significant relationship between renal function and hematoma volume; however, nutritional status and the use of antithrombotic agents showed an increasing tendency of the degree of hematoma in patients with ICH.

PMID:35032897 | DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2021.12.022

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Reduced GABA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex are associated with cognitive impairment in patients with NMOSD

Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2022 Jan 4;58:103496. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.103496. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a symptom present in part of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and its pathophysiology is unknown. Dysfunction of the GABAergic/glutamatergic pathways involving inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters have been implicated in several neurological disorders. This study aimed to investigate the changes in inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory glutamate and glutamine (Glx) neurotransmitter levels and their correlations with cognitive functions in patients with NMOSD.

METHODS: A total of 29 patients with NMOSD and 28 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were included in the study. All participants underwent clinical and cognitive assessments and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scanning. Meshcher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy was used to measure GABA and Glx levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left thalamus. Total creatine (tCr) was applied as an internal reference. The GABA and Glx levels in the patient group were compared with those in HCs and correlated with cognitive scores and clinical variables.

RESULTS: Patients with NMOSD showed lower GABA+/tCr levels in the mPFC compared with HCs (P = 0.028). The GABA+/tCr levels in the mPFC were significantly associated with verbal memory performance (r = 0.462, P = 0.027) and overall cognition (r = 0.440, P = 0.035) in the NMOSD group. The GABA+/tCr levels in the left thalamus or Glx/tCr levels in both regions were not significantly different between groups, nor were they related to any cognitive domain in patients with NMOSD (all P values > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The GABA+ levels in the mPFC decreased and correlated with cognitive dysfunction in patients with NMOSD, suggesting that the changes in regional GABA+ levels might be a potential metabolic feature of cognitive decline in patients with NMOSD.

PMID:35032882 | DOI:10.1016/j.msard.2022.103496