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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Na(4)Ga(8)S(14): a Ga-enriched wide band gap ternary alkali-metal sulfide with unique [Ga(12)S(42)] 12-membered rings

Dalton Trans. 2022 Mar 9. doi: 10.1039/d2dt00295g. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A Ga-enriched ternary alkali-metal sulfide Na4Ga8S14 has been synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction. It crystallizes in the centrosymmetric Pbca (no. 61) space group with cell parameters a = 13.5260(4) Å, b = 11.4979(3) Å, c = 29.9592(9) Å, and Z = 8, and exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) network structure constructed from unique [Ga12S42] 12-membered rings, one-dimensional [Ga4S11] chains, individual [GaS4] units and Na+ ions. The experimental band gap of Na4Ga8S14 was measured as ∼3.57 eV. Theoretical calculations indicate that the title compound is a direct band gap compound and the band gap is mainly determined by [GaS4] units. Meanwhile, statistical analysis shows that the atomic ratio N (N = AIAII/Ga, where AI = alkali-metal, AII = alkaline earth-metal) can be used to regulate the connection of [GaS4] units from zero-dimensional (0D) isolated groups, one-dimensional (1D) chains, and two-dimensional (2D) layers to 3D frameworks in Ga-containing alkali- and/or alkaline earth-metal chalcogenides. The results enrich the diversity of alkali-metal sulfides and give an insight into the structural regulation of alkali- and/or alkaline earth-metal chalcogenides.

PMID:35262155 | DOI:10.1039/d2dt00295g

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Rehabilitation after paediatric acquired brain injury: Longitudinal change in content and effect on recovery

Dev Med Child Neurol. 2022 Mar 9. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15199. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in neurorehabilitation content provided to young people after severe paediatric acquired brain injury (pABI) and to relate this to observed functional recovery.

METHOD: This was an observational study in a cohort of admissions to a residential neurorehabilitation centre. Recovery was described using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability – Computer Adaptive Testing instrument. Rehabilitation content was measured using the recently described Paediatric Rehabilitation Ingredients Measure (PRISM) and examined using multidimensional scaling.

RESULTS: The PRISM reveals wide variation in rehabilitation content between and during admissions primarily reflecting proportions of child active practice, child emotional support, and other management of body structure and function. Rehabilitation content is predicted by pre-admission recovery, suggesting therapist decisions in designing rehabilitation programmes are shaped by their initial expectations of recovery. However, significant correlations persist between plausibly-related aspects of delivered therapy and observed post-admission recovery after adjusting for such effects.

INTERPRETATION: The PRISM approach to the analysis of rehabilitation content shows promise in that it demonstrates significant correlations between plausibly-related aspects of delivered therapy and observed recovery that have been hard to identify with other approaches. However, rigorous, causal analysis will be required to truly understand the contributions of rehabilitation to recovery after pABI.

PMID:35262182 | DOI:10.1111/dmcn.15199

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Comparison of Rapid Antigen Tests’ Performance between Delta (B.1.61.7; AY.X) and Omicron (B.1.1.529; BA1) Variants of SARS-CoV-2: Secondary Analysis from a Serial Home Self-Testing Study

medRxiv. 2022 Mar 2:2022.02.27.22271090. doi: 10.1101/2022.02.27.22271090. Preprint.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need to understand the performance of rapid antigen tests (Ag-RDT) for detection of the Delta (B.1.61.7; AY.X) and Omicron (B.1.1.529; BA1) SARS-CoV-2 variants.

METHODS: Participants without any symptoms were enrolled from October 18, 2021 to January 24, 2022 and performed Ag-RDT and RT-PCR tests every 48 hours for 15 days. This study represents a non-pre-specified analysis in which we sought to determine if sensitivity of Ag-RDT differed in participants with Delta compared to Omicron variant. Participants who were positive on RT-PCR on the first day of the testing period were excluded. Delta and Omicron variants were defined based on sequencing and date of first RT-PCR positive result (RT-PCR+). Comparison of Ag-RDT performance between the variants was based on sensitivity, defined as proportion of participants with Ag-RDT+ results in relation to their first RT-PCR+ result, for different duration of testing with rapid Ag-RDT. Subsample analysis was performed based on the result of participants’ second RT-PCR test within 48 hours of the first RT-PCR+ test.

RESULTS: From the 7,349 participants enrolled in the parent study, 5,506 met the eligibility criteria for this analysis. A total of 153 participants were RT-PCR+ (61 Delta, 92 Omicron); among this group, 36 (23.5%) tested Ag-RDT+ on the same day, and 84 (54.9%) tested Ag-RDT+ within 48 hours as first RT-PCR+. The differences in sensitivity between variants were not statistically significant (same-day: Delta 16.4% [95% CI: 8.2-28.1] vs Omicron 28.2% [95% CI: 19.4-38.6]; and 48-hours: Delta 45.9% [33.1-59.2] vs. Omicron 60.9% [50.1-70.9]). This trend continued among the 86 participants who had consecutive RT-PCR+ result (48-hour sensitivity: Delta 79.3% [60.3-92.1] vs. Omicron: 89.5% [78.5-96.0]). Conversely, the 38 participants who had an isolated RT-PCR+ remained consistently negative on Ag-RDT, regardless of the variant.

CONCLUSIONS: The performance of Ag-RDT is not inferior among individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant as compared to the Delta variant. The improvement in sensitivity of Ag-RDT noted with serial testing is consistent between Delta and Omicron variant. Performance of Ag-RDT varies based on duration of RT-PCR+ results and more studies are needed to understand the clinical and public health significance of individuals who are RT-PCR+ for less than 48 hours.

PMID:35262091 | PMC:PMC8902878 | DOI:10.1101/2022.02.27.22271090

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Genetic Examination of Hematological Parameters in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19

medRxiv. 2022 Feb 28:2022.02.28.22271562. doi: 10.1101/2022.02.28.22271562. Preprint.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People hospitalized with COVID-19 often exhibit hematological alterations, such as lower lymphocyte and platelet counts, which have been reported to associate with disease prognosis. It is unclear whether inter-individual variability in baseline hematological parameters prior to acute infection influences risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and progression to severe COVID-19.

METHODS: We assessed the association of blood cell counts and indices with incident SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 in UK Biobank and the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Synthetic Derivative (VUMC SD). Since genetically determined blood cell measures better represent cell abundance across the lifecourse, we used summary statistics from genome-wide association studies to assess the shared genetic architecture of baseline blood cell counts and indices on COVID-19 outcomes.

RESULTS: We observed inconsistent associations between measured blood cell indices and both SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalization in UK Biobank and VUMC SD. In Mendelian randomization analyses using genetic summary statistics, no putative causal relationships were identified between COVID-19 related outcomes and hematological indices after adjusting for multiple testing. We observed overlapping genetic association signals between hematological parameters and COVID-19 traits. For example, we observed overlap between infection susceptibility-associated variants at PPP1R15A and red blood cell parameters, and between disease severity-associated variants at TYK2 and lymphocyte and platelet phenotypes.

CONCLUSIONS: We did not find convincing evidence of a relationship between baseline hematological parameters and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 severity, though this relationship should be re-examined as larger and better-powered genetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 become available.

PMID:35262092 | PMC:PMC8902884 | DOI:10.1101/2022.02.28.22271562

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Examining How Emergency Remote Teaching Influenced Mathematics Teaching

TechTrends. 2022 Mar 3:1-13. doi: 10.1007/s11528-022-00711-2. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced teachers worldwide to shift to emergency remote teaching (i.e., virtual teaching). As teachers return to their classrooms for in-person teaching, there is a need to examine how remote teaching influences teachers’ instruction. This study examined teachers’ use of digital technologies and specific mathematics activities both during remote teaching and during in-person teaching after returning to their classrooms. The study also examined how teacher participants reported how the pandemic influenced their mathematics teaching. Data analysis indicated statistically significant differences in the frequency of use of all digital technologies except for mathematics games, meaning that mathematics games are used now as much during in-person teaching as remote teaching. Teacher participants also reported that the largest influences of the pandemic and remote teaching have had on their in-person mathematics teaching was the use of general, non-mathematics specific technologies to support organization, the use of hands-on or virtual manipulatives, and the benefit of formative assessment. Implications for future research include the need to examine teachers’ use of digital technologies and mathematics activities more closely during in-person teaching and leverage interviews as a possible way to more closely study teachers’ experiences.

PMID:35262069 | PMC:PMC8890984 | DOI:10.1007/s11528-022-00711-2

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

The CHRONOS Real-World Evidence of Biologic Treatments in Psoriatic Arthritis in Italy: A Post Hoc Gender Analysis

Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle). 2022 Feb 2;3(1):162-171. doi: 10.1089/whr.2021.0063. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Background: Phenotypic features and outcome differences between sexes have been reported in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). However, little is known about sex differences in effectiveness of biologics in clinical practice. Methods: Post hoc gender analysis of the CHRONOS, a multicenter, noninterventional, retroprospective Italian real-world study assessing 6-month and 1-year effectiveness of biologics for PsA. Results: Eligible patients were 399, 43.1% men. Sociodemographic characteristics, type of arthritis, baseline Disease Activity Score 28 joints (DAS28), and duration of biologic treatment were rather homogeneous. More men were overweight/obese and naive to biologics. The most frequently used biologics were TNF-inhibitors and secukinumab in both sexes. DAS28 responders were 72.7% (women) and 70.5% (men) at 6 months, and 68.0% in both sexes at 1 year. American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response showed a trend for men versus women to achieve more frequently ACR50 (32.6% vs. 26.5% at 6 months; 34.9% vs. 20.0% at 1 year) and ACR70 (22.3% vs. 12.4% at 6 months and 25.0% vs. 13.0% at 1 year). Global satisfaction with treatment at enrollment and after 6 months was slightly higher among men [mean (standard deviation) Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9) score: 68.6 (18.6) and 69.9 (18.2), respectively] than women [65.3 (18.2), 66.2 (18.5)]. Conclusions: Overall response to biologics for PsA was rather favorable. With similar baseline disease severity, men appear to have a somewhat earlier and better response with higher treatment satisfaction.

PMID:35262053 | PMC:PMC8896165 | DOI:10.1089/whr.2021.0063

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Rural-Urban Differences in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis

Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle). 2022 Feb 14;3(1):207-214. doi: 10.1089/whr.2021.0082. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To analyze the extent to which rural-urban differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis are explained by factors including age, race, tumor grade, receptor status, and insurance status. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database, analysis was performed using data from women aged 50-74 diagnosed with breast cancer between the years 2013 and 2016. Patient rurality of residence was coded according to SEER’s Rural-Urban Continuum Code 2013: Large Urban (RUCC 1), Small Urban (RUCC 2,3), and Rural (RUCC 4,5,6,7,8,9). Stage at diagnosis was coded according to SEER’s Combined Summary Stage 2000 (2004+) criteria: Localized (0,1), Regional (2,3,4,5), and Distant (7). Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and variations were tested for across rural-urban categories using Kruskall-Wallis and Kendall’s tau-b tests. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the three ordinal levels of rural-urban residence were calculated while adjusting for other independent variables using ordinal logistic regression. Results: The rural residence category showed the largest proportion of women diagnosed with distant stage breast cancer. Additionally, we determined that patients with residence in both large and small urban areas had statistically significantly lower odds of higher stage diagnosis compared to rural patients even after controlling for age, race, tumor grade, receptor status, and insurance status. Conclusions: Rural women with breast cancer show small but statistically significant disparities in stage-at-diagnosis. Further research is needed to understand local area variation in these disparities across a wide range of rural communities, and to identify the most effective interventions to eliminate these disparities.

PMID:35262058 | PMC:PMC8896172 | DOI:10.1089/whr.2021.0082

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Validation and reliability of the Care Vulnerability Index: A study by interrater agreement and test-retest method

Nurs Open. 2022 Mar 8. doi: 10.1002/nop2.1203. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Care Vulnerability Index (CVI) as a tool to estimate the need and competence of care.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey including a longitudinal component.

METHODS: Content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated by interrater agreement of a group of 11 experts in two rounds. The test-retest analysis was measured in an urban population of Colombia with 96 participants through two statistical tests: Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the difference in means.

RESULTS: Care Vulnerability Index turned out to be valid with a CVR of 0.879. Reliability by Pearson correlation between test-retest was 0.912 (CI95: 0.872-0.941; p-value <.01) and there was no significant mean difference between test and retest in global score and in clustered groups of variables. Validating CVI will make it possible to prioritize healthcare resources in the population and identify people susceptible to care problems.

PMID:35261198 | DOI:10.1002/nop2.1203

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Association of Cardiac Biomarkers with Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and Psoriasis: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

Arthritis Rheumatol. 2022 Mar 8. doi: 10.1002/art.42079. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In patients with psoriatic disease (PsD), we determined whether cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were associated with carotid plaque burden and the development of cardiovascular (CV) events independent of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS).

METHODS: Among 1,000 patients with PsD, carotid total plaque area (TPA) was measured in 358 participants at baseline. cTnI and NT-proBNP were measured using automated clinical assays. The association between cardiac biomarkers and carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by multivariable regression after adjusting for CV risk factors. Improvement in the prediction of CV events beyond the FRS was tested using measures of risk discrimination and reclassification.

RESULTS: In univariate analyses, cTnI (β coefficient 0.52 [95% CI 0.3, 0.74], p<0.001) and NT-proBNP (β coefficient 0.24 [95% CI 0.1, 0.39], p<0.001) were associated with TPA. After adjusting for CV risk factors, the association remained statistically significant for cTnI (adjusted β coefficient 0.21 [95% CI 0, 0.41], p=0.047), but not NT-proBNP (p=0.21). Among 1,000 patients with PsD assessed for CV risk prediction, 64 patients had incident CV events. When comparing a base model (with the FRS alone) to expanded models (with the FRS plus cardiac biomarkers), there was no improvement in predictive performance.

CONCLUSION: In patients with PsD, cTnI may reflect the burden of atherosclerosis, independent of traditional CV risk factors. cTnI and NT-proBNP are associated with incident CV events independent of the FRS, however, further study of their role in CV risk stratification is warranted.

PMID:35261189 | DOI:10.1002/art.42079

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

The gender imbalance in Interventional Radiology in Australia and New Zealand

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2022 Mar 8. doi: 10.1111/1754-9485.13397. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are few female Interventional Radiologists worldwide and this is a significant issue for many countries. There is little known about the current status and attitudes to women in Interventional Radiology in Australia and New Zealand. The purpose of this study was to explore the gender balance, workforce challenges and perceptions towards women in Interventional Radiology in Australia and New Zealand.

METHODS: An anonymised voluntary survey exploring the current demographics of Interventional Radiologists and opinions on multiple gender issues in Interventional Radiology was conducted. The survey was sent to all members of the Interventional Radiology Society of Australasia. Statistical analysis was performed using independent samples t-tests, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U testing and proportions of binary variables using logistic regression.

RESULTS: Seventy seven responses were received, 83% males and 17% females. The majority of participants worked full time (83%) and identified as an Interventional Radiologist with/without some sessions of diagnostic radiology per week (83%). There was general consensus in many issues; however, males tended to disagree more than females that female IRs are treated differently than male IRs (p < 0.037), and that male IRs are paid more than female IRs (P = 0.020). Females agreed it was harder for female IRs to gain academic or clinical promotion; however, males disagreed (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: There is a clear gender imbalance in Interventional Radiology in Australia and New Zealand. Multiple issues should be investigated and addressed by the major stakeholders such as the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists and the Interventional Radiology society of Australasia.

PMID:35261169 | DOI:10.1111/1754-9485.13397