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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Anemia and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

Cancer Invest. 2021 May 7:1-17. doi: 10.1080/07357907.2021.1928166. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the effect of anemia on tumor response of patients with primary invasive breast cancer (BC) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). The patient collective was very homogenous; finally, 74 BC patients with identical medication and duration of NACT were enrolled. After completion of NACT, 49 patients (66.2%) had a post-NACT Hb level <12 g/dl. In the anemic group, we found a tendency of lower median tumor response compared to non-anemic patients at this time (15 versus 17 mm, retrospectively, p = 0.18). Age at diagnosis significantly correlated with the difference of Hb [before initiation – after completion of NACT] (correlation coefficient =0.40, p < 0.001).

PMID:33961512 | DOI:10.1080/07357907.2021.1928166

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Does systemic anti-tumor therapy increase COVID-19 risk in patients with cancer?

J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2021 May 7:10781552211015762. doi: 10.1177/10781552211015762. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the COVID-19 infection rate and determine the factors that affect hospitalization and prognosis in patients receiving systemic chemotherapy (CT), immunotherapy (IT) and molecular-targeted therapies at our hospital within three months after the onset of COVID-19 pandemic.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients who received systemic treatment at chemotherapy unit with diagnosis of cancer between 11 March 2020 and 11 June 2020 were included. The clinical and demographic characteristics of patients, the systemic treatments that they received (CT, IT, targeted therapies), and the stage of disease were determined. For the parameters that affect the hospitalization of COVID-19 infected patients were also determined.

RESULTS: Among 1149 patients with cancer, 84 of them were infected with COVID-19, and the median age of infected patients was 61.0 (IQR: 21-84) and 60.7% of them were male. As a subtype of cancers lung cancer was more frequent in the patients who infected with COVID compared with non-infected ones and the difference was statistically significant when the underlying malignities were compared (32.1% vs 19.0%, p = 0.031). The hospitalization rate and receiving COVID-19 treatment were more frequent in metastatic patients who were receiving palliative therapy, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01, p = 0.03). In our study, infection rate was similar among patients treated with CT, IT and CT plus targeted therapy; however, fewer COVID-19 infections were seen at patients who received only targeted therapy.

CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection is more frequent in cancer patients and tends to be more severe in metastatic cancer patients receiving anticancer treatment, and the continuation of palliative cancer treatments in these patients may cause increased cancer and infection-related morbidity and mortality.

PMID:33961521 | DOI:10.1177/10781552211015762

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Disordered Photonic Time Crystals

Phys Rev Lett. 2021 Apr 23;126(16):163902. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.163902.

ABSTRACT

We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in disordered photonic time crystals: spatially homogenous media whose refractive index changes randomly in time. We find that the group velocity of a pulse propagating in such media decreases exponentially, eventually coming to a complete stop, while experiencing exponential growth in intensity. These effects greatly depend on the Floquet band structure of the photonic time crystal, with the strongest sensitivity to disorder occurring in superluminal modes. Finally, we analyze the ensemble statistics and find them to coincide with those of Anderson localization, exhibiting single parameter scaling.

PMID:33961479 | DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.163902

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

The Influence of Health-Seeking Behaviors on the Health Literacy of Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease

J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2021 May 7:10434542211011045. doi: 10.1177/10434542211011045. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Health literacy may influence the transition from pediatric care to adult care in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). It is postulated that one influencing factor of health literacy in adolescents with SCD is health-seeking behavior. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to explore health-seeking behaviors of adolescents with SCD and (2) to determine if there are significant differences in health literacy levels of adolescents with SCD based upon health-seeking behaviors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluating health-seeking behaviors and health literacy in 110 Black and non-Hispanic adolescents with SCD. Convenience sampling was utilized for recruitment. The inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of one of the four primary genotypes of SCD and age of 10-19 years. Health literacy was evaluated using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all variables. Independent Samples t-tests were conducted to evaluate differences in health literacy scores based upon differing health-seeking behaviors. Results: The mean age of participants was 14.8 years (SD = 2.2). The mean NVS score was 2.7 (SD = 1.6). The two most common responses to “where do you go FIRST for health information?” were the Internet (29.6%; n = 40) and health care providers (27.4%; n = 37). There was no statistical difference in NVS scores between adolescents using the Internet versus health care providers as their first source of health information (t[75] = – .12; p = .22). Discussion: Knowledge of health-seeking behaviors and health literacy in adolescents with SCD gives insight into the design and evaluation of future interventions to improve health and health literacy in this population.

PMID:33960864 | DOI:10.1177/10434542211011045

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Morphometric assessment of the mesorectal fat in Chinese Han population: A clinical MRI study

Sci Prog. 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211016214. doi: 10.1177/00368504211016214.

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to analyze morphometric assessment of the mesorectal fat thickness and its correlation with body mass index in Chinese Han population. The anterior, posterior, right lateral, and left lateral mesorectal fat thickness were measured using MRI T2-weighted images. The mean distance from the rectal wall to the mesorectal fascia were 3.8, 8.4, 11.3, and 11.7 mm in anterior, posterior, right lateral, and left lateral portion, respectively. The mesorectal area, rectal area, mesorectal fat thickness area, and rectal height were 2395.3 ± 691.1 mm2, 709.6 ± 403.5 mm2, 1685.7 ± 525.3 mm2, and 9.1 ± 0.8 cm. BMI was found to be directly proportional to and statistically significant to the mesorectal fat area (p = 0.01). Since the mean mesorectal fat thickness was found to be <12 mm, T3d staged rectal cancer is less likely to be found in an average Chinese population that may affect the overall-survival and progression-free survival in rectal cancer patients. Anterior portion of the rectum was least thick compared to all other sides. Therefore, extra-caution should be taken in handling tumors on the anterior part of the rectum.

PMID:33960865 | DOI:10.1177/00368504211016214

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Extraperitoneal Laparoscopic Versus Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Approaches for Extended Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection During Radical Prostatectomy

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2021 May 6. doi: 10.1089/lap.2021.0174. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: We aim to directly compare the feasibility and safety of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) during transperitoneal robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (Tp-RARP) and extraperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (Ep-LRP). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified the prospectively maintained database records of 162 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (PC) who underwent Ep-LRP or Tp-RARP with extended PLND. Patients with risk of nodal metastases over 5% according to Briganti nomogram received extended PLND. All data analyzed in this study were based on the documentation in our PC database including age, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index score, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, history of abdominal surgery, biopsy Gleason score, total operation time, postoperative pelvic drainage time, pathological results, lymph node yield (LNY), percentage lymph node involvement (%LNI), and perioperative complications. Patients were followed up for biochemical recurrence in the postoperative period. Results: Eighty-two of the 162 enrolled patients were in group 1 (Ep-LRP+PLND) and 80 were in group 2 (Tp-RARP+PLND). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding preoperative demographics and clinical characteristics. The median LNY was 17 (range 8-27) and 17.5 (range 10-29) in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and no statistically significant difference was found. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of biochemical recurrence-free survival with mean follow-up of 44.8 months after radical surgery. Conclusion: Our results support the view that extended PLND through the Ep-LRP approach is a feasible and safe procedure without compromising oncological efficacy compared with a similar template attempted during Tp-RARP. Clinical Trial Registration number is 01/21-2.

PMID:33960836 | DOI:10.1089/lap.2021.0174

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Technology-Assisted Psychosocial Interventions for Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 2021 May 6. doi: 10.1089/jayao.2021.0012. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Technology-assisted interventions are essential in supporting cancer survivors’ psychosocial outcomes, especially for childhood, adolescent, and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors, a tech-savvy generation. This study aims to systematically evaluate review and meta-analyze technology-assisted interventions for childhood and AYA cancer survivors. Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, the study team used a pre-set of key words and searched studies across 11 electronic databases and 4 professional websites, and conducted a manual search of reference lists from published reviews. Meta-analysis of small sample size corrected Hedges’ g was conducted using meta-regression with robust variance estimation. Results: Final analysis included a total of 28 clinical trials, including 237 effect sizes reported an overall statistically significant treatment effect of technology-assisted psychosocial interventions for childhood and AYA cancer survivors, g = 0.382, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.243 to 0.521, p < 0.0001. Subgroup analysis revealed that distraction-based interventions and interventions for psychosocial and emotional health were overall statistically significant, whereas interventions for childhood and AYA cancer survivors’ cancer knowledge outcomes and physical and functional health outcomes were statistically nonsignificant. Moderator analysis found intervention target was a significant moderator. Conclusions: Technology-assisted interventions for childhood and AYA cancer survivors were overall effective across domains of survivorship outcomes. Favorable evidence was found primarily for childhood cancer survivors with limited support for AYA cancer survivors. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Although existing technology-assisted interventions are overall promising, research support for cancer survivors from different age groups and with different psychosocial challenges varies and should be considered individually.

PMID:33960845 | DOI:10.1089/jayao.2021.0012

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Multiple imputation in data that grow over time: a comparison of three strategies

Multivariate Behav Res. 2021 May 7:1-17. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2021.1912582. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Multiple imputation is a recommended technique to deal with missing data. We study the problem where the investigator has already created imputations before the arrival of the next wave of data. The newly arriving data contain missing values that need to be imputed. The standard method (RE-IMPUTE) is to combine the new and old data before imputation, and re-impute all missing values in the combined data. We study the properties of two methods that impute the missing data in the new part only, thus preserving the historic imputations. Method NEST multiply imputes the new data conditional on each filled-in old data

m2>1

times. Method APPEND is the special case of NEST with

m2=1,

thus appending each filled-in data by single imputation. We found that NEST and APPEND have the same validity as RE-IMPUTE for monotone missing data-patterns. NEST and APPEND also work well when relations within waves are stronger than between waves and for moderate percentages of missing data. We do not recommend the use of NEST or APPEND when relations within time points are weak and when associations between time points are strong.

PMID:33960858 | DOI:10.1080/00273171.2021.1912582

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SHAPE Directed Discovery of New Functions in Large RNAs

Acc Chem Res. 2021 May 7. doi: 10.1021/acs.accounts.1c00118. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

ConspectusRNA lies upstream of nearly all biology and functions as the central conduit of information exchange in all cells. RNA molecules encode information both in their primary sequences and in complex structures that form when an RNA folds back on itself. From the time of discovery of mRNA in the late 1950s until quite recently, we had only a rudimentary understanding of RNA structure across vast regions of most messenger and noncoding RNAs. This deficit is now rapidly being addressed, especially by selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) chemistry, mutational profiling (MaP), and closely related platform technologies that, collectively, create chemical microscopes for RNA. These technologies make it possible to interrogate RNA structure, quantitatively, at nucleotide resolution, and at large scales, for entire mRNAs, noncoding RNAs, and viral RNA genomes. By applying comprehensive structure probing to diverse problems, we and others are showing that control of biological function mediated by RNA structure is ubiquitous across prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.Work over the past decade using SHAPE-based analyses has clarified key principles. First, the method of RNA structure probing matters. SHAPE-MaP, with its direct and one-step readout that probes nearly every nucleotide by reaction at the 2′-hydroxyl, gives a more detailed and accurate readout than alternatives. Second, comprehensive chemical probing is essential. Focusing on fragments of large RNAs or using meta-gene or statistical analyses to compensate for sparse data sets misses critical features and often yields structure models with poor predictive power. Finally, every RNA has its own internal structural personality. There are myriad ways in which RNA structure modulates sequence accessibility, protein binding, translation, splice-site choice, phase separation, and other fundamental biological processes. In essentially every instance where we have applied rigorous and quantitative SHAPE technologies to study RNA structure-function interrelationships, new insights regarding biological regulatory mechanisms have emerged. RNA elements with more complex higher-order structures appear more likely to contain high-information-content clefts and pockets that bind small molecules, broadly informing a vigorous field of RNA-targeted drug discovery.The broad implications of this collective work are twofold. First, it is long past time to abandon depiction of large RNAs as simple noodle-like or gently flowing molecules. Instead, we need to emphasize that nearly all RNAs are punctuated with distinctive internal structures, a subset of which modulate function in profound ways. Second, structure probing should be an integral component of any effort that seeks to understand the functional nexuses and biological roles of large RNAs.

PMID:33960770 | DOI:10.1021/acs.accounts.1c00118

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Changes in High Weight-for-Length among Infants Enrolled in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children during 2010-2018

Child Obes. 2021 May 6. doi: 10.1089/chi.2021.0055. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Infants and young children with high weight-for-length are at increased risk for obesity in later life. This study describes prevalence of high weight-for-length and examines changes during 2010-2018 among 11,366,755 infants and young children 3-23 months of age in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Methods: Children’s weights and lengths were measured. High weight-for-length was defined as ≥2 standard deviations above sex and age-specific median on World Health Organization growth charts. Adjusted prevalence differences (APDs) between years were calculated as 100 times marginal effects from logistic regression models. APD was statistically significant if 95% confidence interval did not include 0. Results: Adjusted prevalence of high weight-for-length decreased from 2010 to 2014, and leveled off through 2018 overall, in boys and girls, those 6-11 and 18-23 months of age, and non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and Asians/Pacific Islanders. For 12-17 months old and American Indian/Alaska Native infants and young children, adjusted prevalence decreased from 2010 to 2014, and then increased slightly through 2018. Among 56 WIC state or territorial agencies, 33 had significant decreases between 2010 and 2018, whereas 8 had significant increases. Between 2014 and 2018, prevalence decreased significantly in 12 agencies and increased significantly in 23. Conclusions: The results indicate overall declines in prevalence of high weight-for-length from 2010 to 2018, with a prevalence stabilization since 2014. Continued surveillance is needed. Obesity prevention strategies in WIC and multiple settings are important for ensuring healthy child growth.

PMID:33960827 | DOI:10.1089/chi.2021.0055