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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Local infiltration analgesia with bupivacaine and adrenaline does not reduce perioperative blood loss in total hip arthroplasty

PLoS One. 2021 Sep 9;16(9):e0257202. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257202. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the effect of local infiltration analgesia with bupivacaine and adrenaline on perioperative blood loss in total hip arthroplasty. Patients who had primary total hip arthroplasty were retrospectively assigned to two groups. One group had 100 ml of bupivacaine/adrenaline solution injected into periarticular soft tissues at the end of the procedure. There were 55 patients in the infiltrated hip group and 44 patients in the not infiltrated group. Patients’ hemoglobin level (Hb), hematocrit (HTC), red blood count (RBC), platelet count (PLT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) as well as the need for blood transfusions were compared statistically between groups preoperatively and postoperatively. There were no significant differences between Hb, HTC or RBC levels as well as the rate and amount of blood transfusions on the 1st, 4th postoperative days or at patients’ discharge between infiltrated and not infiltrated groups. This study does not support the hypothesis that the use of local infiltration analgesia with adrenaline may reduce perioperative blood loss in total hip arthroplasty.

PMID:34499694 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0257202

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Facebook as an engagement tool: How are public benefit organizations building relationships with their public?

PLoS One. 2021 Sep 9;16(9):e0256880. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0256880. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

The beginning of the 21st century brought a change in the approach to public relations (PR). Both the literature and the practice saw a shift in focus from evaluating the efficiency of communication strategies to relationship management. On the other hand, the growing interest in the use of social media in the management of many types of organizations has prompted researchers to seek the theoretical causes of this trend. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine the scope of the Polish public benefit organizations’ (PBO) use of the social network Facebook in managing relationships with stakeholders. The PBO is a specific form of non-profit organization, which enjoys the special privilege of collecting tax-deductible donations of 1% of personal income tax (PIT). The research covered 876 entities, which were divided into four clusters depending on their size. A database of posts was created that the organizations published in the period selected for the research. Then, the impact of the Facebook content on user engagement was analyzed. For this purpose, various statistical methods were used, i.e. descriptive statistics, statistical tests and multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that, in spite of social media’s unquestionable advantages, public benefit organizations only take advantage of a small proportion of this potential. The role of the most popular service, Facebook, in increasing organizational revenue from 1% of PIT deductions seems secondary at best. Apart from that, the results showed that the rates of posting by different Polish public benefit organizations vary widely. Although some organizations were very active in this aspect, the Facebook pages of many organizations remained completely inactive throughout the analysis or showed only minimal activity. Larger organizations exhibited a much greater posting activity than their smaller counterparts.

PMID:34499679 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0256880

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Optimizing health facility location for universal health care: A case study from the Philippines

PLoS One. 2021 Sep 9;16(9):e0256821. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0256821. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Site selection of health facilities is critical in ensuring universal access to basic healthcare services. However, in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like the Philippines, site selection is traditionally based on political and pragmatic considerations. Moreover, literature that demonstrates the application of facility location models in the Philippine healthcare setting remains scarce, and their usage in actual facility planning is even more limited. In this study, we proposed a variation of cooperative covering maximal models to identify the optimal location of primary care facilities. We demonstrated the feasibility of implementing such a model by using open source data on an actual city in the Philippines. Our results generated multiple candidate locations of primary care facilities depending on the equity and efficiency parameters. This approach could be used as one of the critical considerations in evidence-based, multi-criterion health facility location decisions of governments, and can also be adapted in other industries, given the model’s use of readily available open source datasets.

PMID:34499680 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0256821

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A proposed framework for the development and qualitative evaluation of West Nile virus models and their application to local public health decision-making

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 9;15(9):e0009653. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009653. eCollection 2021 Sep.

ABSTRACT

West Nile virus (WNV) is a globally distributed mosquito-borne virus of great public health concern. The number of WNV human cases and mosquito infection patterns vary in space and time. Many statistical models have been developed to understand and predict WNV geographic and temporal dynamics. However, these modeling efforts have been disjointed with little model comparison and inconsistent validation. In this paper, we describe a framework to unify and standardize WNV modeling efforts nationwide. WNV risk, detection, or warning models for this review were solicited from active research groups working in different regions of the United States. A total of 13 models were selected and described. The spatial and temporal scales of each model were compared to guide the timing and the locations for mosquito and virus surveillance, to support mosquito vector control decisions, and to assist in conducting public health outreach campaigns at multiple scales of decision-making. Our overarching goal is to bridge the existing gap between model development, which is usually conducted as an academic exercise, and practical model applications, which occur at state, tribal, local, or territorial public health and mosquito control agency levels. The proposed model assessment and comparison framework helps clarify the value of individual models for decision-making and identifies the appropriate temporal and spatial scope of each model. This qualitative evaluation clearly identifies gaps in linking models to applied decisions and sets the stage for a quantitative comparison of models. Specifically, whereas many coarse-grained models (county resolution or greater) have been developed, the greatest need is for fine-grained, short-term planning models (m-km, days-weeks) that remain scarce. We further recommend quantifying the value of information for each decision to identify decisions that would benefit most from model input.

PMID:34499656 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0009653

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Knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and perceived risk about COVID-19 vaccine and determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in Bangladesh

PLoS One. 2021 Sep 9;16(9):e0257096. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257096. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh govt. launched a nationwide vaccination drive against SARS-CoV-2 infection from early February 2021. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines and examine the factors associated with the acceptance in Bangladesh. In between January 30 to February 6, 2021, we conducted a web-based anonymous cross-sectional survey among the Bangladeshi general population. At the start of the survey, there was a detailed consent section that explained the study’s intent, the types of questions we would ask, the anonymity of the study, and the study’s voluntary nature. The survey only continued when a respondent consented, and the answers were provided by the respondents themselves. The multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors that influence the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccination. A total of 605 eligible respondents took part in this survey (population size 1630046161 and required sample size 591) with an age range of 18 to 100. A large proportion of the respondents are aged less than 50 (82%) and male (62.15%). The majority of the respondents live in urban areas (60.83%). A total of 61.16% (370/605) of the respondents were willing to accept/take the COVID-19 vaccine. Among the accepted group, only 35.14% showed the willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine immediately, while 64.86% would delay the vaccination until they are confirmed about the vaccine’s efficacy and safety or COVID-19 becomes deadlier in Bangladesh. The regression results showed age, gender, location (urban/rural), level of education, income, perceived risk of being infected with COVID-19 in the future, perceived severity of infection, having previous vaccination experience after age 18, having higher knowledge about COVID-19 and vaccination were significantly associated with the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. The research reported a high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine refusal and hesitancy in Bangladesh. To diminish the vaccine hesitancy and increase the uptake, the policymakers need to design a well-researched immunization strategy to remove the vaccination barriers. To improve vaccine acceptance among people, false rumors and misconceptions about the COVID-19 vaccines must be dispelled (especially on the internet) and people must be exposed to the actual scientific facts.

PMID:34499673 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0257096

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The impact of access to water supply and sanitation on the prevalence of active trachoma in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 9;15(9):e0009644. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009644. eCollection 2021 Sep.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is a worldwide infectious disease causing blindness. Trachoma continued as a public health problem in Ethiopia due to a lack of sanitation and inadequate prevention strategies. This study aimed to identify the impact of water supply and sanitation intervention on preventing active trachoma among children.

METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed from 4 international databases. The search involved articles published from January 1995 up to March 2019. The Cochran Q and I2 statistical tests were used to check heterogeneity among the studies. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed to determine the pooled estimates with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Data analysis was performed using the CMA V.3 and RevMan 5 software program, and the result of the systematic review was reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

FINDINGS: Out of 211 studies screened for the analysis, only 29 studies were finally included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The result revealed factors that are significantly associated with increased odds of active trachoma. Accordingly, households with no access to toilet facilities (odds ratio [OR]: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.75-2.38), no access to improved water (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.27-1.96), and do not practice regular face washing for children (OR: 4.19, 95% CI: 3.02-5.81) have shown increased odds of active trachoma. Besides, the results show a higher prevalence of active trachoma among children who did not wash their faces with soap and frequently.

CONCLUSIONS: The study found strong evidence that lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) was associated with increased prevalence of active trachoma among children. Therefore, a comprehensive and partnership-oriented program is needed to tackle the problem, but further study will be required to strengthen its implementation.

PMID:34499655 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0009644

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Cross-cultural adaptation into italian and validation of the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment-2

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2021 Sep 9. doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.21.07029-5. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of dysarthria is required to make an accurate differential diagnosis with other communication disorders and plan effective rehabilitation programs. The Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment-2 (FDA-2) is a valid, reliable and widely-used protocol for the assessment of dysarthria. An Italian version of the FDA-2 is currently lacking.

AIM: To perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the FDA-2 in Italian and to validate the Italian version of the FDA-2.

DESIGN: Validation study.

SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation center.

POPULATION: 69 patients with dysarthria and 112 healthy controls.

METHODS: The FDA-2 was translated and cross-culturally adapted to Italian. The validation study was carried out in 4 steps: (1) 42 audio-recorded samples of FDA-2 items from 11 patients with dysarthria were independently assessed by 7 speech and language pathologists for interrater reliability and re-assessed after 6 weeks for intrarater reliability; (2) 11 patients were simultaneously assessed by 3 speech and language therapists for interrater reliability of the whole Italian version of the FDA-2 and re-assessed within 24 hours for test-retest reliability; (3) the Italian version of the FDA-2 was administered to 112 healthy volunteers to gain normative data; (4) 49 patients with different types of dysarthria were assessed using the Italian version of the FDA-2, the Therapy Outcome Measure impairment scale and the Robertson Profile for the validity analysis.

RESULTS: Interrater and intrarater reliability ranged from good to excellent (ICC >0.75) except for 3 audiorecorded items. The overall protocol demonstrated excellent (ICC >0.9) inter-rater and test-retest reliability for all the sections and the total score. Normative data were gained for 6 age groups. For the validity analysis, a statistically significant difference was found between dysarthric patients and healthy subjects for all sections and the total score. The FDA-2 significantly correlated to the Therapy Outcome Measure (r=0.75) and the Robertson Profile (r=0.81).

CONCLUSIONS: The Italian version of the FDA-2 yield satisfactory reliability and validity, comparable to the psychometric properties of the original version.

CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Speech and language pathologists can rely on a valid and reliable tool in Italian for the assessment of dysarthria in both clinical and research practice.

PMID:34498832 | DOI:10.23736/S1973-9087.21.07029-5

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A meta-analysis of the executive function components inhibition, shifting, and attention in intellectual disabilities

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2021 Sep 9. doi: 10.1111/jir.12878. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Executive function is a concept for higher-order cognitive functions, which have the role of controller and modulator of cognitive abilities. The consensus in the literature is that people with an intellectual disability perform significantly lower on executive function tasks than groups matched on chronological age. The comparison with groups matched on mental age is less clear. Therefore, the objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate to what extent executive function is impaired in people with intellectual disability compared with a typically developing control group matched on mental age. It was also investigated if the executive function component and intellectual disability aetiology moderated the effect.

METHODS: Eligibility criteria were participants with intellectual disability (IQ ≤ 75) without a dual diagnosis; a comparison group matched on mental age; executive function outcome reported in a group comparison study design with n ≥ 10. Working memory tasks and ratings of executive function were not included. The literature search yielded 6637 potentially interesting articles. Twenty-six studies (with 99 effect sizes) including 1395 participants were included in the quantitative synthesis.

RESULTS: A multilevel random-effects meta-analysis found that people with intellectual disability performed statistically significantly lower than the mental age-matched group on the executive function tasks, g = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = [-0.53, -0.16]. However, the heterogeneity between effect sizes was large. The intellectual disability aetiology moderator was significant, but it only reduced the heterogeneity marginally.

CONCLUSION: The overall conclusion is that individuals with an intellectual disability have more problems with executive function tasks than mental age-matched controls. Limitations are the large unexplained variance and the remarkably high number (69) of different tests that were used, which make more detailed conclusions problematic. This meta-analysis implies that future studies need to be of better quality, to have higher power, and to a higher degree use the same executive function tests.

PMID:34498787 | DOI:10.1111/jir.12878

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Effects of tooth bleaching protocols assisted by Er,Cr:YSGG and diode (980 nm) lasers on color change of resin-based restoratives

J Esthet Restor Dent. 2021 Sep 9. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12817. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate color change of three resin-based restorative materials after two laser-assisted in-office tooth bleaching protocols using Er,Cr:YSGG and diode (980 nm) lasers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nanohybrid composite resin (EP), a Bis-GMA free composite resin (EPBio) and a resin-matrix CAD-CAM ceramic (HC) were tested. Ninety specimens were prepared and stored in artificial saliva. Group 1 received an in-office bleaching treatment using 40% H2 O2. The same bleaching procedure was assisted by Er,Cr:YSGG laser in Group 2 and by a diode laser (980 nm) in Group 3. Color measurements were performed using a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer at four time intervals (before, 24 h, 15 and 30 days), converted to L*, a*, and b* units of the CIELAB color space and assessed on the basis of 50:50% acceptability (ΔΕab * = 2.7 and ΔΕ00 = 1.77) and 50:50% perceptibility (ΔΕab * = 1.2 and ΔΕ00 = 0.81) thresholds. Three-way ANOVA with repeated measurements was used for statistical analysis of the data.

RESULTS: Color and whiteness changes did not exceed the established 50:50% acceptability thresholds. EP presented the highest color change after the bleaching followed by EPBio and HC (p ≤ 0.05). Three-way ANOVA revealed that type of material and time interval significantly affected color change (p ≤ 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The tested bleaching treatments assisted by Er,Cr:YSGG and diode (980 nm) lasers did not induce unacceptable color and whiteness changes in the resin-based restorative materials.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The tested Er,Cr:YSGG and diode (980 nm) laser-assisted tooth bleaching protocols which may be recommended to accelerate the clinical procedures cannot affect the color of the existing resin-based restorations in case they are accidentally exposed on the bleaching gel and laser irradiation.

PMID:34498792 | DOI:10.1111/jerd.12817

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Pelvic ring reconstruction with double-barreled fibular free flap: A systematic review

Microsurgery. 2021 Sep 9. doi: 10.1002/micr.30806. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pelvic ring reconstruction after internal hemipelvectomy is an extremely challenging surgical procedure, and mandatory reconstruction is to provide a durable and pain-free functional outcome, especially for young, active patients. One of the most widely employed techniques is reconstruction with a double-barreled fibular free flap (DBF). The aim of our work was an in-depth analysis of the outcome of pelvic ring reconstruction performed using the above-mentioned method, in particular looking for a correlation between the fixation technique and either ambulation status or complications.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was performed in November 2020 using PubMed and MedLine Ovid databases according to the PRISMA guidelines and the results were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS: Studies were published between 1994 and 2015. A DBF was used in each case, with a total of 30 patients. Reconstruction was performed with screws in 13 cases, Cotrel-Dubousset rod fixation in 6, screws and plate in 5, screws with external fixation in 4, and ISOLA in 2. Follow-up time ranged from 3 to 131 months. Functional outcome was excellent in 4 patients and good in 26 patients. Statistical analysis showed no statistical evidence of existing correlation between fixation technique and complications (p = .873), while statistical correlation between age and fixation technique was found (p < .001).

CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of pelvic ring with DBF provides an overall good functional outcome. Our data indicate that there is no statistical evidence of existing correlation between the fixation technique and either complications or ambulation status.

PMID:34498772 | DOI:10.1002/micr.30806