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Changes in kinematics and work physiology during progressive lifting in healthy adults

Appl Ergon. 2021 Mar 2;94:103396. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2021.103396. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To analyze progression of changes in kinematics and work physiology during progressive lifting in healthy adults.

METHODS: Healthy participants were recruited. A standardized lifting test from the WorkWell Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) was administered, with five progressive lifting low series of five repetitions. The criteria of the WorkWell observation protocol were studied: changes in muscle use (EMG), heart rate (heart rate monitor), base of support, posture and movement pattern (motion capture system). Repeated measures ANOVA’s were used to analyze changes during progressive workloads.

RESULTS: 18 healthy young adults participated (8 men, 10 women; mean age 22 years). Mean maximum weight lifted was 66 (±3.2) and 44 (±7.4) kg for men and women, respectively. With progressive loads, statistically significant (p < 0.01) differences were observed: increase in secondary muscle use at moderate lifting, increase of heart rate, increase of base of support and movement pattern changes were observed; differences in posture were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Changes in 4 out of 5 kinematic and work physiology parameters were objectively quantified using lab technology during progressive lifting in healthy adults. These changes appear in line with existing observation criteria.

PMID:33667899 | DOI:10.1016/j.apergo.2021.103396

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Elucidating the combined effect of sample preparation and solid-phase microextraction conditions on the volatile composition of cooked meat analyzed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

Food Chem. 2021 Feb 23;352:129380. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129380. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a common approach to analyze the volatile profile of cooked meat. The present study aims to investigate the combined effect of sample preparation, including meat presentation (minced and steak) and cooking method (stewed and grilled), and extraction temperature (30, 60 and 80 °C) and time (30 and 50 min) on the volatile composition of cooked deer meat. The statistical results indicated that extraction temperature was the most relevant factor affecting the meat volatile profile of cooked meat followed by the extraction time. Higher extraction temperatures improved the detection of heavy volatile compounds, while sample preparation had little influence on the meat volatile profile, probably due to the accurate control of the parameters used for meat presentation and cooking methods. The results of this work can assist in the standardization of analytical procedures for the characterization of volatile compounds in cooked meat.

PMID:33667923 | DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129380

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Real-time spatial health surveillance: Mapping the UK COVID-19 epidemic

Int J Med Inform. 2021 Jan 28;149:104400. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104400. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for robust data linkage systems and methods for identifying outbreaks of disease in near real-time. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to develop a real-time geospatial surveillance system to monitor the spread of COVID-19 across the UK. Methods Using self-reported app data and the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank, we demonstrate the use of sophisticated spatial modelling for near-real-time prediction of COVID-19 prevalence at small-area resolution to inform strategic government policy areas. Results We demonstrate that using a combination of crowd-sourced app data and sophisticated geo-statistical techniques it is possible to predict hot spots of COVID-19 at fine geographic scales, nationally. We are also able to produce estimates of their precision, which is an important pre-requisite to an effective control strategy to guard against over-reaction to potentially spurious features of ‘best guess’ predictions. Conclusion In the UK, important emerging risk-factors such as social deprivation or ethnicity vary over small distances, hence risk needs to be modelled at fine spatial resolution to avoid aggregation bias. We demonstrate that existing geospatial statistical methods originally developed for global health applications are well-suited to this task and can be used in an anonymised databank environment, thus preserving the privacy of the individuals who contribute their data.

PMID:33667930 | DOI:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2021.104400

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Haemonchus contortus infection induces a variable immune response in resistant and susceptible Pelibuey sheep

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2021 Feb 25;234:110218. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110218. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The immune response and phenotypic characteristics of Pelibuey lambs were analysed after the induction of a Haemonchus contortus trickle infection. Male lambs (n = 29; 20 kg live weight) were infected with 100 H. contortus infective larvae per kg of live weight on day 3, 5 and 7 of the experiment. The number of eggs per gram (epg), seven haematological parameters and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) level were analysed for 56 experimental days. In addition, histopathological samples from the fundic abomasal region and the relative expression of 10 immune-related genes from 15 infected and three non-infected lambs were analysed at day 0 and 49 of the experiment. The epg count and some haematological parameters (leucocytes, red blood cells, haemoglobin and total protein) with statistically significant differences (P < 0.01) were used to identify nine resistant and 20 susceptible lambs (1166 ± 1071 and 3171 ± 1463 epg, respectively). Moreover, acute infiltration of immune cells and parasitic granuloma formation were observed in susceptible lambs; the resistant group had moderate inflammatory cell infiltration. With respect to relative gene expression, resistant lambs showed upregulation (P < 0.001) of 10 genes, from 2.2 to 15.99 fold. Moreover, there was a strong indirect correlation (P < 0.05) between the epg count and interleukin 5 (IL5) gene expression. By contrast, there was an average 0.34 fold downregulation in nine of the immune-related genes (P ≤ 0.05) in susceptible lambs (the only exception was Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ia [FCER1A] upregulation). In addition, there was a direct correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between the epg count and the expression of IL8, which encodes an inflammatory chemokine. In conclusion, this study showed differential IL5 and IL8 gene expression during haemonchosis in resistant and susceptible Pelibuey lambs, respectively, together with a variable immune response based on histopathological and haematological parameters.

PMID:33667946 | DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110218

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The effects of exercise on sleep in unipolar depression: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

Sleep Med Rev. 2021 Jan 23;59:101452. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101452. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Insomnia predicts the onset, course, and reoccurrence of unipolar depression. However, systematic reviews of treatment options for insomnia in unipolar depression are lacking. After screening 7725 records, 17 trials comprising 1645 patients randomized to 13 treatments were included for quantitative synthesis. Network meta-analysis showed that compared to a passive control condition, all exercise interventions except moderate aerobic exercise alone resulted in significantly better sleep outcomes. Compared with treatment as usual, mind-body exercise plus treatment as usual (SMD: -0.46; 95% CI: -0.80, -0.12) and vigorous strength exercise (SMD: -0.61; 95% CI: -1.12, -0.10) were significantly more effective. Pairwise meta-analyses showed that mind-body exercise (SMD: -0.54; 95% CI: -0.85, -0.23) had beneficial effects compared to passive control. The network meta-analysis is statistically very robust with low heterogeneity, incoherence, and indirectness. However, confidence in the findings was moderate to very low, primarily due to within-study bias. This is the first network meta-analysis to assess exercise’s efficacy to improve sleep quality in patients with depression. The findings confirm the benefits of exercise as an add-on treatment for depression. This consolidation of the current state of evidence can help clinicians make evidence-based decisions.

PMID:33667885 | DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101452

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Synchronized determination of the novel heart failure combination therapy containing sacubitril calcium and valsartan by a validated spectrofluorimetric method

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2021 Feb 22;253:119613. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2021.119613. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A sensitive and accurate spectrofluorimetric method was proposed for the determination of Sacubitril calcium and Valsartan simultaneously in binary mixture. The method was established on measuring the native fluorescence of Sacubitril calcium and Valsartan upon excitation at 240 nm in acetonitrile. The emission of Sacubitril calcium was measured at 615 nm. For the determination Valsartan a first derivative ratio method was employed to eliminate any spectral interference. The ratio emission spectra were achieved by dividing the emission spectra of various concentrations of Valsartan by the emission spectrum of Sacubitril calcium (100 ng/ml) then the first derivative of the obtained ratio emission spectra was recorded using the proper smoothing factor. The amplitude at 354.9 nm on the first derivative ratio emission spectrum was used to calculate the concentrations of Valsartan in presence of Sacubitril calcium. The method was linear over the concentration range 100-1000 ng/ml for both Sacubitril calcium and Valsartan. The mean accuracy values were found to be 99.32 ± 0.62 and 99.30 ± 0.70 for Sacubitril calcium and Valsartan, respectively. Statistical comparison between results obtained by the proposed method and a reported method for this drugs showed no significant difference. This developed method was used for the quantitative determination of Sacubitril calcium and Valsartan in both pure and pharmaceutical dosage form.

PMID:33667887 | DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2021.119613

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Consulting ‘Dr. Google’ for minimally invasive urological oncological surgeries: A contemporary web-based trend analysis

Int J Med Robot. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1002/rcs.2250. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine web-based public interest in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) specifically for urological oncological surgical procedures and how interest in robotics and laparoscopy compares over time.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide search-engine trend analysis included electronic Google queries of MIS urologic options from January 2004 to August 2019, worldwide. Join-point regression was performed. Comparison of annual relative search volume (ARSV) and average annual percentage change (AAPC) were analysed to assess loss or gain of interest. Evaluations were made regarding 1) penetrance of interest for MIS in Urology; 2) how MIS urologic procedures compared over time; and 3) which were the top related queries to searches for urologic oncology procedures.

RESULTS: Increased interest was found for all of the MIS procedures evaluated. Mean ARSV for robotic approach was higher for the search term ‘prostatectomy” (44.8 vs. 13.5; p < 0.001) and ‘partial nephrectomy” (27.1 vs.11.5; p = 0.02). No statistical difference was found for the search terms ‘cystectomy” or ‘nephrectomy”. The analysis of mean (∆-ARSV) of MIS procedures measured between the first and last 12 months of the study period showed an increased interest with a more pronounced ∆-ARSV for robotic procedures. The top related searches for all surgical procedures were examined showing an increasing inquisitiveness with regards of type of urological cancers, treatment options, type of surgery and prognostic outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: People are increasingly searching the web for MIS urological procedures. A growing appeal for robotics is demonstrated, especially for prostatectomy and partial nephrectomy where the robotic approach is gaining traction, suggesting a shift in mind-set amongst people seeking urological healthcare information.

PMID:33667326 | DOI:10.1002/rcs.2250

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Prevention of depression in adults with long-term physical conditions

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 5;3:CD011246. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011246.pub2.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major depression is one of the world’s leading causes of disability in adults with long-term physical conditions compared to those without physical illness. This co-morbidity is associated with a negative prognosis in terms of increased morbidity and mortality rates, increased healthcare costs, decreased adherence to treatment regimens, and a substantial decline in quality of life. Therefore, preventing the onset of depressive episodes in adults with long-term physical conditions should be a global healthcare aim. In this review, primary or tertiary (in cases of preventing recurrences in those with a history of depression) prevention are the focus. While primary prevention aims at preventing the onset of depression, tertiary prevention comprises both preventing recurrences and prohibiting relapses. Tertiary prevention aims to address a depressive episode that might still be present, is about to subside, or has recently resolved. We included tertiary prevention in the case where the focus was preventing the onset of depression in those with a history of depression (preventing recurrences) but excluded it if it specifically focused on maintaining an condition or implementing rehabilitation services (relapse prevention). Secondary prevention of depression seeks to prevent the progression of depressive symptoms by early detection and treatment and may therefore be considered a ‘treatment,’ rather than prevention. We therefore exclude the whole spectrum of secondary prevention.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, acceptability and tolerability of psychological or pharmacological interventions, in comparison to control conditions, in preventing depression in adults with long-term physical conditions; either before first ever onset of depressive symptoms (i.e. primary prevention) or before first onset of depressive symptoms in patients with a history of depression (i.e. tertiary prevention).

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and two trials registries, up to 6 February 2020.

SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive psychological or pharmacological interventions, specifically targeting incidence of depression in comparison to treatment as usual (TAU), waiting list, attention/psychological placebo, or placebo. Participants had to be age 18 years or older, with at least one long-term physical condition, and no diagnosis of major depression at baseline (primary prevention). In addition, we included studies comprising mixed samples of patients with and without a history of depression, which explored tertiary prevention of recurrent depression. We excluded other tertiary prevention studies. We also excluded secondary preventive interventions. Primary outcomes included incidence of depression, tolerability, and acceptability. Secondary outcomes included severity of depression, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 RCTs, with one trial on psychological interventions, and 10 trials on pharmacological interventions. Data analyses on the psychological intervention (problem-solving therapy compared to TAU) included 194 participants with age-related macular degeneration. Data analyses on pharmacological interventions included 837 participants comparing citalopram (one trial), escitalopram (three trials), a mixed sample of fluoxetine/nortriptyline (one trial), melatonin (one trial), milnacipran (one trial), and sertraline (three trials), each to placebo. Included types of long-term physical conditions were acute coronary syndrome (one trial), breast cancer (one trial), head and neck cancer (two trials), stroke (five trials), and traumatic brain injury (one trial). Psychological interventions Very low-certainty evidence of one study suggests that problem solving therapy may be slightly more effective than TAU in preventing the incidence of depression, immediately post-intervention (odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.95; 194 participants). However, there may be little to no difference between groups at six months follow-up (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.38; 190 participants; one study; very low-certainty evidence). No data were available regarding incidence of depression after six months. Regarding acceptability (drop-outs due to any cause), slightly fewer drop-outs occurred in the TAU group immediately post-intervention (OR 5.21, 95% CI 1.11 to 24.40; 206 participants; low-certainty evidence). After six months, however, the groups did not differ (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.58 to 4.77; 206 participants; low-certainty evidence). This study did not measure tolerability. Pharmacological interventions Post-intervention, compared to placebo, antidepressants may be beneficial in preventing depression in adults with different types of long-term physical conditions, but the evidence is very uncertain (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.49; 814 participants; nine studies; I2 =0%; very low-certainty evidence). There may be little to no difference between groups both immediately and at six months follow-up (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.46; 23 participants; one study; very low-certainty evidence) as well as at six to 12 months follow-up (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.82; 233 participants; three studies; I2 = 49%; very low-certainty evidence). There was very low-certainty evidence from five studies regarding the tolerability of the pharmacological intervention. A total of 669 adverse events were observed in 316 participants from the pharmacological intervention group, and 610 adverse events from 311 participants in the placebo group. There was very low-certainty evidence that drop-outs due to adverse events may be less frequent in the placebo group (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.89; 561 participants; five studies; I2 = 0%). There was also very low-certainty evidence that drop-outs due to any cause may not differ between groups either post-intervention (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.73; 962 participants; nine studies; I2 = 28%), or at six to 12 months (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.86; 327 participants; three studies; I2 = 0%).

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: Based on evidence of very low certainty, our results may indicate the benefit of pharmacological interventions, during or directly after preventive treatment. Few trials examined short-term outcomes up to six months, nor the follow-up effects at six to 12 months, with studies suffering from great numbers of drop-outs and inconclusive results. Generalisation of results is limited as study populations and treatment regimes were very heterogeneous. Based on the results of this review, we conclude that for adults with long-term physical conditions, there is only very uncertain evidence regarding the implementation of any primary preventive interventions (psychological/pharmacological) for depression.

PMID:33667319 | DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011246.pub2

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Awareness and utilisation of advanced gynaecological ultrasound in the preoperative work-up of women planning surgery for endometriosis: A survey of RANZCOG fellows and trainees

Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2021 Mar 5. doi: 10.1111/ajo.13322. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis-specific (advanced gynaecological) ultrasound is recommended as part of preoperative work-up of women with suspected endometriosis.

AIM: To evaluate the awareness and utilisation of advanced gynaecological ultrasound in the preoperative work-up of women with suspected endometriosis among active RANZCOG (Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists) fellows and trainees.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anonymous online survey invitations were emailed to all active RANZCOG fellows in Australia and New Zealand. Descriptive analysis of responses and multivariate analysis where appropriate were performed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: A 17% (437/2567) survey response rate and 93% (409/437) completion rate were recorded; 59% (248/421) of respondents identified as generalists, whereas 15% (63/421) identified as advanced laparoscopic surgeons. Routine pelvic ultrasound (88.9%, 361/406) was the most common imaging modality requested by respondents; 32% (128/405) of respondents would also always request advanced gynaecology ultrasound. Respondents’ self-reported practice type was significantly associated with utilisation of advanced gynaecological ultrasound (P = 0.03); 79.6% (348/437) agreed with our proposed definition of advanced gynaecological ultrasound for endometriosis. A major limitation to the utilisation of advanced gynaecological ultrasound for endometriosis was the lack of local expertise (63.8%, 233/356).

CONCLUSION: The utilisation of advanced gynaecological ultrasound for endometriosis is significantly influenced by respondents’ self-reported practice type and limited by the lack of local expertise.

PMID:33667321 | DOI:10.1111/ajo.13322

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Comparison of safety and effectiveness between 23-gauge and 25-gauge vitrectomy surgery in common vitreoretinal diseases

PLoS One. 2021 Mar 5;16(3):e0248164. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248164. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess and compare safety and effectiveness between 23-gauge and 25-gauge vitrectomy systems for the treatment of common vitreoretinal diseases in non-vitrectomized eyes.

METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy from April 2018 to December 2019 at the Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry at the Medical University of Vienna (MUV) for the following indications: macular epiretinal membrane, macular hole, macular lamellar hole, vitreous hemorrhage, vitreous opacities, vitreomacular traction syndrome and macular edema.

RESULTS: 201 eyes of 195 patients that underwent 23-gauge (n = 105 eyes) or 25-gauge (n = 96 eyes) vitrectomy were included in this study. The mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved at 1-3 months postoperatively and beyond 3 months in both gauge groups. Risk of any complication within 1 month postoperatively was lower in the 25-gauge group, but the difference was statistically not significant (HR [95% CI]: 0.95 [0.53; 1.70], p = 0.85). Intraocular pressure less than 5 mmHg was observed in 2 eyes (2%) in the 23-gauge group at the first postoperative day. Intraocular pressure elevation over 25 mmHg occurred in 5 eyes (2 eyes, 2%, in 23-gauge and 3 eyes, 3%, in 25-gauge group) at postoperative day 1, between 7 and 28 days in 5 cases (2 eyes, 2%, in 23-gauge and 3 eyes, 3%, in 25-gauge group), and in 2 eyes (2%) of the 23-gauge group at postoperative day 145 and 61, respectively. Retinal detachment occurred in 1 eye (1%) in the 23-gauge and in 3 eyes (3%) in the 25-gauge group. We did not observe any cases of endophthalmitis.

CONCLUSION: Results in terms of safety, surgical success and visual outcomes for the treatment of common vitreoretinal surgery indications seem to be comparable between 23-gauge and 25-gauge vitrectomy systems, indicating that the two gauge systems can be used equally in the clinical routine.

PMID:33667273 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0248164