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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Factors affecting household disaster preparedness in South Korea

PLoS One. 2022 Oct 4;17(10):e0275540. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0275540. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

This study examines current household disaster preparedness and identifies its predictors in South Korea. A structured online survey was administered to 1,243 participants quota-sampled by age and population from each administrative district. Based on the socio-ecological model, interpersonal factors (general characteristics, prior disaster experience, anxiety, dispositional optimism, perceived disaster risk, and disaster preparedness knowledge), institutional factor (front-line preparedness), community factor (community resilience), public policy factor (governmental preparedness), and household disaster preparedness were measured. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Bonferroni test, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and multiple regression. The predictors of household disaster preparedness were occupation, economic status, prior disaster experience, anxiety, disaster preparedness knowledge, front-line preparedness, and community resilience. The most potent predictor of household disaster preparedness was community resilience. Our finding that community resilience, a community factor, has a greater impact on household disaster preparedness than personal factors calls for programs that promote such resilience. Further, continuous public education and campaigns are needed to increase public awareness of household disaster preparedness and to improve the public’s competency to prepare for potential disasters. This study raises the need for community programs for residents to increase household disaster preparedness knowledge and improve their competencies related to disaster response. This study is significant in highlighting the importance of community factors in improving household disaster preparedness amid the need to prepare for various types of disasters.

PMID:36194599 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0275540

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Socio-cultural factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and menstrual hygiene practices among Junior High School adolescent girls in the Kpando district of Ghana: A mixed method study

PLoS One. 2022 Oct 4;17(10):e0275583. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0275583. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Good menstrual hygiene practice is critical to the health of adolescent girls and women. In Ghanaian public schools, the School Health Education Program which includes menstrual health education has been instituted to equip adolescents with knowledge on menstruation and its related good hygiene practices. However, in most communities, menstruation is scarcely discussed openly due to mostly negative social and religious beliefs about menstruation. In this study, we examined socio-cultural factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and menstrual hygiene practices among Junior High School adolescent girls in the Kpando Municipality of Ghana.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mixed method approach was employed with 480 respondents. A survey was conducted among 390 adolescent girls using interviewer-administered questionnaires to collect data on knowledge of menstruation and menstrual hygiene practices. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) using a discussion guide were conducted among 90 respondents in groups of 9 members. The FGD was used to collect data on socio-cultural beliefs and practices regarding menstruation. Descriptive and inferential statistics and content analysis were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively.

RESULTS: Most (80%) of the study participants had good knowledge of menstruation. Also, most (82%) of the participants practiced good menstrual hygiene. Attending a public (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.12-0.48, p<0.001) and rural (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.75, p<0.01) school was significantly associated with reduced odds of practicing good menstrual hygiene. Good knowledge of menstruation was associated with increased odds of good hygiene practices (AOR = 4.31, 95% CI = 2.39-7.90, p<0.001). Qualitative results showed that teachers provided adolescents with more detailed biological information on menstruation than key informants (family members) did at menarche. However, both teachers and family members spoke positively of menstruation to adolescent girls. Social and religious beliefs indicate that menstruation is evil and unclean. Such beliefs influenced community members’ attitudes towards adolescent girls and led to practices such as isolating menstruating girls and limiting their ability to interact and participate in certain community and religious activities.

CONCLUSION: Despite the prominence of negative social and religious beliefs about menstruation, good menstrual hygiene practice was high among study participants. Knowledge of menstruation; place of residents; and type of school were the major factors associated with good menstrual hygiene practice. It is therefore, necessary to intensify the School Health Education Program in both rural and urban public and intensively involve private schools as well to ensure equal access to accurate information on menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practices among adolescent girls.

PMID:36194593 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0275583

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Inter-departmental abortion travels in metropolitan France: A mixed-methods analysis of women’s experiences, access, and barriers to abortion care

PLoS One. 2022 Oct 4;17(10):e0273190. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273190. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

In Europe, there is a dearth of studies on abortion-related mobilities within countries where abortion is legal. In France, 18% of women seek abortion care outside their department of residence care. Most of these flows take place within Île-de-France region. This paper aims at providing novel insights into the motives and experiences of women traveling within France and particularly within the Île-de-France region for abortion care. It draws upon official abortion statistics as well as quantitative and qualitative data collected in three Parisian hospitals during a five-year European research project on barriers to legal abortion and abortion travel. Despite governmental efforts to facilitate access to abortions over the past decades, our findings show that various barriers exist for why women do not find services in their department of residence (lack of services or access to preferred methods, quality of care, long waiting times). However, most of our study participants report coming to Paris as a convenience and use commuting as a strategy to overcome obstacles in receiving abortion care.

PMID:36194570 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0273190

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Effect of COVID-19 pandemic on missed medical appointment among adults with chronic disease conditions in Northwest Ethiopia

PLoS One. 2022 Oct 4;17(10):e0274190. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0274190. eCollection 2022.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 had affected the health-care-seeking behavior of people with chronic medical conditions. The impact is even worse in resource-limited settings like Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the extent and correlates of missed appointments among adults with chronic disease conditions before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Northwest Ethiopia.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review and cross-sectional survey were conducted from December 2020 to February 2021. A total of 1833 patients with common chronic disease were included by using a stratified systematic random sampling technique. Web-based data collection was done using Kobo collect. The data were explored using descriptive statistical techniques, the rate of missed appointments s before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was determined. A negative binomial regression model was fitted to identify the factors of missed appointment. An incidence rate ratio with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value of the final model were reported.

RESULTS: The rate of missed appointments was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.13%, 14.20%) before the pandemic, increased to 26.8% (95% CI: 24.73%, 28.82%) during the pandemic (p-value < 0.001). Fear of COVID-19 infection and lack of transport was the most common reasons for missing appointments. Older patients (Adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio (AIRR) = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.001; 1.015), having treatment follow up more than 5 years (AIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.103; 1.69), shorter frequency of follow-up (AIRR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.63; 2.49), covering expense out of pocket (AIRR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.41; 2.95), having a sedentary lifestyle (AIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.12; 1.71), and history of missed appointments before COVID-19 pandemic (AIRR = 4.27, 95%CI: 3.35; 5.43) were positively associated with the incidence of missed appointments.

CONCLUSION: The rate of missed appointment increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Older age, longer duration of follow up, more frequent follow-up, out-of-pocket expenditure for health service, history of poor follow-up, and sedentary lifestyle had positive relationship with missed appointments during the pandemic. Therefore, it is important to give special emphasis to individuals with these risk factors while designing and implementing policies and strategies for peoples with chronic diseases to ensure the continuity of care and to avoid the long-term impact on their health.

PMID:36194566 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0274190

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Current Smoking and Risk of Coronavirus Infection and Illness in a Highly Controlled Challenge Study: A Re-analysis of the British Cold Study

Nicotine Tob Res. 2022 Oct 4:ntac148. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntac148. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Meta-analyses have shown an association between smoking and the risk of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease severity, but the risk of smoking and coronavirus infection is less clear.

AIMS AND METHODS: We re-analyzed data from the British Cold Study, a 1986-1989 challenge study that exposed 399 healthy adults to 1 of 5 “common cold” viruses (including n = 55 for coronavirus 229E). Participants with cotinine levels below 15 ng/mL (noncurrent smokers) were compared with participants with higher cotinine levels or self-reported smoking (current smokers). We calculated overall and coronavirus-specific unadjusted and adjusted relative risks (RRs) for current smoking and each outcome (infection and illness), and tested whether each association was modified by the type of respiratory virus.

RESULTS: Current smokers had a higher adjusted risk than noncurrent smokers for infection (adjusted RR [aRR] = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.25) and illness (aRR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96). Neither association was modified by an interaction term for smoking and type of virus (infection: p = .44, illness: p = .70). The adjusted RR estimates specific to coronavirus 229E for infection (aRR = 1.22, 95% CI: .91, 1.63) and illness (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: .62, 2.08) were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: These RRs provide estimates of the strength of associations between current smoking and infection and illness that can be used to guide tobacco control decisions.

IMPLICATIONS: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found an association between smoking and COVID-19 disease severity, but fewer studies have examined infection and illness. The British Cold Study, a high-quality challenge study that exposed healthy volunteers to respiratory viruses including a coronavirus, provides an opportunity to estimate the RR for current smoking and infection and illness from coronaviruses and other viruses to guide tobacco control decisions. Compared with noncurrent smokers, current smokers had a 12% increased risk of having a laboratory-confirmed infection and a 48% increased risk of a diagnosed illness, which was not modified by the type of respiratory virus including a coronavirus.

PMID:36194540 | DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntac148

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Preclinical Model to Evaluate Outcomes of Amyloid Cross-Toxicity in the Rodent Brain

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2022 Oct 4. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00419. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The progress of neurodegenerative disorders correlates with the spread of their associated amyloidogenic proteins. Here, we investigated whether amyloid entry into nonconstitutive neurons could drive cross-toxic outcomes. Amyloid β (Aβ) was stereotaxically introduced into the rodent midbrain tegmentum, where it is not endogenously expressed. Postinfusion, rodent motor and sensorimotor capacities were assessed by standard behavioral tests at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The longitudinal study revealed no behavioral abnormalities. However, Aβ insult provoked intraneuronal inclusions positive for phosphorylated α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons and were seen throughout the midbrain, a pathognomonic biomarker suggesting Parkinson’s pathogenesis. These findings not only underscore the cross-toxic potential of amyloid proteins but also provide a mechanism by which they disrupt homeostasis in nonconstitutive neurons and cause neuronal corruption, injury, and demise. This study may help reconcile the large incidence of neurodegenerative comorbidity observed clinically.

PMID:36194532 | DOI:10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00419

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Nevin Manimala Statistics

Measuring dimensionality of cell-scaffold contacts of primary human bone marrow stromal cells cultured on electrospun fiber scaffolds

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2022 Oct 4. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.37449. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The properties and structure of the cellular microenvironment can influence cell behavior. Sites of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) initiate intracellular signaling that directs cell functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Electrospun fibers mimic the fibrous nature of native ECM proteins and cell culture in fibers affects cell shape and dimensionality, which can drive specific functions, such as the osteogenic differentiation of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs), by. In order to probe how scaffolds affect cell shape and behavior, cell-fiber contacts were imaged to assess their shape and dimensionality through a novel approach. Fluorescent polymeric fiber scaffolds were made so that they could be imaged by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescent polymer films were made as a planar control. hBSMCs were cultured on the fluorescent substrates and the cells and substrates were imaged. Two different image analysis approaches, one having geometrical assumptions and the other having statistical assumptions, were used to analyze the 3D structure of cell-scaffold contacts. The cells cultured in scaffolds contacted the fibers in multiple planes over the surface of the cell, while the cells cultured on films had contacts confined to the bottom surface of the cell. Shape metric analysis indicated that cell-fiber contacts had greater dimensionality and greater 3D character than the cell-film contacts. These results suggest that cell adhesion site-initiated signaling could emanate from multiple planes over the cell surface during culture in fibers, as opposed to emanating only from the cell’s basal surface during culture on planar surfaces.

PMID:36194510 | DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.37449

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Duloxetine for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN): systematic review and meta-analysis

BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2022 Sep 8:spcare-2022-003815. doi: 10.1136/spcare-2022-003815. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Duloxetine has previously been reported to be promising in the setting of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis, on the use of duloxetine in prevention and treatment of CIPN.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from database inception up until April 2022. Articles were included in this review if they reported on duloxetine use in the setting of CIPN, in a multiarm comparative human trial. A random effects DerSimonian-Laird model was used to calculate summary risk ratios (RR) and corresponding 95% CIs, comparing duloxetine to placebo. This review was registered on.

RESULTS: Seven randomised controlled trials that included 645 patients were identified. Five reported on duloxetine for treatment of CIPN, and two for prevention of CIPN. Two studies had some concern for bias. Duloxetine was statistically similar to placebo in its efficacy, both in the treatment (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.01) and prevention (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.19) of CIPN. Safety profile was similar, in the treatment (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.89) and prevention (RR 1.52, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.38) setting.

CONCLUSION: There is currently limited evidence supporting duloxetine’s use for CIPN. There is a need for more comprehensive and higher-quality trials assessing duloxetine in the setting of CIPN, before further clinical practice recommendations.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO (CRD42022327487).

PMID:36194493 | DOI:10.1136/spcare-2022-003815

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Associations of RPEL1 and miR-1307 gene polymorphisms with disease susceptibility, glucocorticoid efficacy, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life in Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus patients

Lupus. 2022 Oct 4:9612033221131182. doi: 10.1177/09612033221131182. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our present study intended to examine the associations of RPEL1 and miR-1307 gene polymorphisms (rs4917385 and rs7911488) with susceptibility, glucocorticoids (GCs) efficacy, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients.

METHODS: Initially, 1000 participants (500 SLE cases and 500 controls) were recruited for the case-control study. Then, 429 cases who received GCs were followed through 12 weeks to explore GCs efficacy, depression, anxiety, and HRQoL. We selected the iMLDR technique for genotyping: RPEL1: rs4917385 (G/T) and miR-1307: rs7911488 (A/G).

RESULTS: The minor G allele of rs7911488 reduced the risk of SLE (p = .024). Four haplotypes consisting of rs4917385 and rs7911488 were associated with SLE susceptibility (p < .025). Both rs4917385 and rs7911488 were associated with anxiety symptoms and physical function (PF) in SLE patients (p < .025). The rs4917385 was associated with depression and its improvement. No statistical significance was found between RPEL1 and miR-1307 gene polymorphisms with GCs efficacy. Meanwhile, additive interaction analysis showed a significant association between RPEL1 and miR-1307 gene polymorphisms with tea consumption in anxiety.

CONCLUSION: RPEL1 and miR-1307 gene polymorphisms (rs4917385 and rs7911488) might be related to SLE susceptibility in Chinese population. Additionally, the two polymorphisms were possibly associated with depression, anxiety, and HRQoL in Chinese SLE population.

PMID:36194484 | DOI:10.1177/09612033221131182

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Running on empty: a longitudinal global study of psychological well-being among runners during the COVID-19 pandemic

BMJ Open. 2022 Sep 2;12(9):e063455. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-063455.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are indications that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound negative effect on psychological well-being. Here, we investigated this hypothesis using longitudinal data from a large global cohort of runners, providing unprecedented leverage for understanding how the temporal development in the pandemic pressure relates to well-being across countries.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING: Global.

PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the worldwide Garmin-RUNSAFE cohort that recruited runners with a Garmin Connect account, which is used for storing running activities tracked by a Garmin device. A total of 7808 Garmin Connect users from 86 countries participated.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: From 1 August 2019 (prepandemic) to 31 December 2020, participants completed surveys every second week that included the five-item WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Pandemic pressure was proxied by the number of COVID-19-related deaths per country, retrieved from the Coronavirus Resource Centre at Johns Hopkins University. Panel data regression including individual- and time-fixed effects was used to study the association between country-level COVID-19-related deaths over the past 14 days and individual-level self-reported well-being over the past 14 days.

RESULTS: The 7808 participants completed a total of 125 409 WHO-5 records over the study period. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between the number of COVID-19-related deaths and the level of psychological well-being-independent of running activity and running injuries (a reduction of 1.42 WHO-5 points per COVID-19-related death per 10 000 individuals, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative effect on the psychological well-being of the affected populations, which is concerning from a global mental health perspective.

PMID:36194449 | DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-063455