Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Clinical features and risk factors of renal dysfunctions in thalassemic patients

Int Urol Nephrol. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s11255-023-03506-3. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic anemia, iron overload, and iron chelation therapy are the main contributing factors for renal complications in thalassemia, e.g., nephrolithiasis, glomerular disease, and renal tubular dysfunction. The prevalence and associated factors for developing renal dysfunctions in Thai patients with thalassemia, however, remained limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of renal dysfunctions in patients with thalassemia.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult patients with thalassemia disease at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. All patients were evaluated for complete blood count, blood chemistry, urinalysis, and urine biochemistry. Renal tubular dysfunction was defined as existing in at least one of the following parameters including; proteinuria, hypercalciuria, hypouricemia with uricosuria, or hypophosphatemia with phosphaturia. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors for renal dysfunctions.

RESULTS: Of 105 patients, renal tubular dysfunction was found in 60 patients (57.1%). In multivariate analysis of the clinical risk factors for renal tubular dysfunction in thalassemia patients, age per 10 year increase (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-2.0, p value 0.01) and Hb E/beta-thalassemia (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-10.3, p value 0.01) were statistically proven to be associated with renal tubular dysfunction. Hyperuricosuria was a significantly associated factor for microhematuria. (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-8.0, p value 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: Renal dysfunctions are prevalent in thalassemia patients, with older age and Hb E/beta-thalassemia genotype as significant risk factors for renal tubular dysfunction. Hyperuricosuria is a risk factor for microhematuria. Renal dysfunctions should be recognized and monitored in aging patients with Hb E/beta-thalassemia.

PMID:36749473 | DOI:10.1007/s11255-023-03506-3

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Postmortem injury evaluation using the Forensic Injury Severity Score Template (FISST): a preliminary study

Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s12024-023-00583-9. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) are important evaluation tools used in clinical practice to determine the degree of injury in patients with trauma. However, they are not suitable for forensic practice and their use in forensic applications is limited. This study aimed to present a system that can objectively and quantitatively determine the severity of postmortem injuries and that can be applied to forensic medicine. Subsequently, we applied this system to individual postmortem cases and analyzed the injuries identified during autopsy. We performed a retrospective study of 119 autopsies performed between 2018 and 2021. Data were categorized and analyzed using the Forensic Injury Severity Score Template (FISST), a scoring system developed based on the AIS and ISS. The mean FISST scores were as follows: men, 53.6; women, 46.8; 20-65 years old, 55.6; older than 65 years, 41.4; natural death, 13.8; unnatural death, 66.3; and all deaths, 51.8. Statistically significant differences in the FISST scores were found between natural and unnatural deaths, suicidal and accidental deaths, and trauma-related death subtypes. Injuries identified during autopsy can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using FISST. We suggest that FISST is a useful tool in forensic medicine because it is tailor-made for injury evaluation from a postmortem perspective.

PMID:36749470 | DOI:10.1007/s12024-023-00583-9

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Coping with COVID in corrections: a qualitative study among the recently incarcerated on infection control and the acceptability of wastewater-based surveillance

Health Justice. 2023 Feb 7;11(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s40352-023-00205-0.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Correctional settings are hotspots for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Social and biological risk factors contribute to higher rates of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among justice-involved individuals. Rapidly identifying new cases in congregate settings is essential to promote proper isolation and quarantine. We sought perspectives of individuals incarcerated during COVID-19 on how to improve carceral infection control and their perspectives on acceptability of wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) accompanying individual testing.

METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 adults who self-reported being incarcerated throughout the United States between March 2020 and May 2021. We asked participants about facility enforcement of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID-19 guidelines, and acceptability of integrating WBS into SARS-CoV-2 monitoring strategies at their most recent facility. We used descriptive statistics to characterize the study sample and report on acceptability of WBS. We analyzed qualitative data thematically using an iterative process.

RESULTS: Participants were predominantly Black or multiple races (50%) and men (75%); 46 years old on average. Most received a mask during their most recent incarceration (90%), although only 40% received counseling on proper mask wearing. A quarter of participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at intake. Most (70%) believed they were exposed to the virus while incarcerated. Reoccurring themes included (1) Correctional facility environment leading to a sense of insecurity, (2) Perceptions that punitive conditions in correctional settings were exacerbated by the pandemic; (3) Importance of peers as a source of information about mitigation measures; (4) Perceptions that the safety of correctional environments differed from that of the community during the pandemic; and (5) WBS as a logical strategy, with most (68%) believing WBS would work in the last correctional facility they were in, and 79% preferred monitoring SARS-CoV-2 levels through WBS rather than relying on just individual testing.

CONCLUSION: Participants supported routine WBS to monitor for SARS-CoV-2. Integrating WBS into existing surveillance strategies at correctional facilities may minimize the impact of future COVID-19 outbreaks while conserving already constrained resources. To enhance the perception and reality that correctional systems are maximizing mitigation, future measures might include focusing on closer adherence to CDC recommendations and clarity about disease pathogenesis with residents.

PMID:36749465 | DOI:10.1186/s40352-023-00205-0

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Dissociation Between Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Statistical Learning in Children with Autism

J Autism Dev Disord. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s10803-023-05902-1. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Statistical learning (SL), the ability to detect and extract regularities from inputs, is considered a domain-general building block for typical language development. We compared 55 verbal children with autism (ASD, 6-12 years) and 50 typically-developing children in four SL tasks. The ASD group exhibited reduced learning in the linguistic SL tasks (syllable and letter), but showed intact learning for the nonlinguistic SL tasks (tone and image). In the ASD group, better linguistic SL was associated with higher language skills measured by parental report and sentence recall. Therefore, the atypicality of SL in autism is not domain-general but tied to specific processing constraints related to verbal stimuli. Our findings provide a novel perspective for understanding language heterogeneity in autism.

PMID:36749457 | DOI:10.1007/s10803-023-05902-1

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Growth patterns and outcomes of growth hormone therapy in patients with acrodysostosis

J Endocrinol Invest. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s40618-023-02026-2. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe short stature is a feature of acrodysostosis, but data on growth are sparse. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is used in some centers to increase final height, but no studies have been published so far. Our objective was to conduct a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study to investigate growth in individuals with both types of acrodysostosis, treated with rhGH or not; we used the new nomenclature to describe acrodysostosis, as this disease belongs to the large group of inactivating PTH/PTHrP signaling disorders (iPPSD); acrodysostosis refers to iPPSD4 (acrodysostosis type 1 due to PRKAR1A mutations) and iPPSD5 (acrodysostosis type 2, due to PDE4D mutations).

METHODS: We present auxological data from individuals with genetically characterized iPPSD4, and participants with clinical features of iPPSD5.

RESULTS: We included 20 and 17 individuals with iPPSD4 and iPPSD5, respectively. The rhGH-treated iPPSD4 patients (n = 9) were smaller at birth than those who did not receive rhGH (median – 2.2 SDS vs. – 1.7 SDS); they showed a trend to catch-up growth during rhGH therapy (median 0.5 SDS in the first year). The rhGH-treated patients (n = 5) reached a better final height compared to those who did not receive rhGH (n = 4) (median – 2.8 SDS vs. – 3.9 SDS), suggesting that rhGH is efficient to increase height in those patients. The difference in target height to final height ranged between 1.6 and 3.0 SDS for iPPSD4 not treated with rhGH (n = 4), 2.1-2.8 SDS for rhGH-treated iPPSD4 (n = 5), 0.6-5.5 SDS for iPPSD5 not treated with rhGH (n = 5) and 2.5-3.1 for rhGH-treated iPPSD5 (n = 2).

CONCLUSION: Final height may be positively influenced by rhGH in patients with acrodysostosis/iPPSD. Our rhGH-treated cohort started therapy relatively late, which might explain, at least in part, the limited effect of rhGH on height.

PMID:36749450 | DOI:10.1007/s40618-023-02026-2

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Performance measurement of nonhomogeneous Hong Kong hospitals using directional distance functions

Health Care Manag Sci. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s10729-022-09625-0. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Cook et al. (Oper Res 61(3):666-676, 2013) propose a DEA-based model for the performance evaluation of non-homogeneous decision making units (DMUs) based on constant returns to scale (CRS), extended by Li et al. (Health Care Manag Sci 22(2):215-228, 2019) to variable returns to scale (VRS). This paper locates these models into more general DDF models to deal with nonhomogeneous DMUs and applies these to Hong Kong hospitals. The production process of each hospital is divided into subunits which have the same inputs and outputs and hospital performance is measured using the subunits. The paper provides CRS and VRS versions of DDF models and compares them with Cook et al. (Oper Res 61(3):666-676, 2013) and Li et al. (Health Care Manag Sci 22(2):215-228, 2019). A kernel-based method is used to estimate the distributions as well as a DEA-based efficiency analysis adapted by Simar and Zelenyuk to test the distributions. Both DDF CRS and VRS versions produce results similar to Cook et al. (Oper Res 61(3):666-676, 2013) and Li et al. (Health Care Manag Sci 22(2):215-228, 2019) respectively. However, the statistical tests find differences for the different technologies assumed as would be expected. For hospital managers, the more generalised DDF models expand their range of options in terms of directional improvements and priorities as well as dealing with non-homogeneity.

PMID:36749449 | DOI:10.1007/s10729-022-09625-0

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Dosimetric impact of 3D motion-compensated SPECT reconstruction for SIRT planning

EJNMMI Phys. 2023 Feb 7;10(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s40658-023-00525-y.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In selective internal radiation therapy, 99mTc SPECT images are used to optimize patient treatment planning, but they are affected by respiratory motion. In this study, we evaluated on patient data the dosimetric impact of motion-compensated SPECT reconstruction on several volumes of interest (VOI), on the tumor-to-normal liver (TN) ratio and on the activity to be injected.

METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with liver cancer or hepatic metastases treated by radioembolization were included in this study. The biodistribution of 90Y is assumed to be the same as that of 99mTc when predictive dosimetry is implemented. A total of 31 99mTc SPECT images were acquired and reconstructed with two methods: conventional OSEM (3D) and motion-compensated OSEM (3Dcomp). Seven VOI (liver, lungs, tumors, perfused liver, hepatic reserve, healthy perfused liver and healthy liver) were delineated on the CT or obtained by thresholding SPECT images followed by Boolean operations. Absorbed doses were calculated for each reconstruction using Monte Carlo simulations. Percentages of dose difference (PDD) between 3Dcomp and 3D reconstructions were estimated as well as the relative differences for TN ratio and activities to be injected. The amplitude of movement was determined with local rigid registration of the liver between the 3Dcomp reconstructions of the extreme phases of breathing.

RESULTS: The mean amplitude of the liver was 9.5 ± 2.7 mm. Medians of PDD were closed to zero for all VOI except for lungs (6.4%) which means that the motion compensation overestimates the absorbed dose to the lungs compared to the 3D reconstruction. The smallest lesions had higher PDD than the largest ones. Between 3D and 3Dcomp reconstructions, means of differences in lung dose and TN ratio were not statistically significant, but in some cases these differences exceed 1 Gy (4/31) and 8% (2/31). The absolute differences in activity were on average 3.1% ± 5.1% and can reach 22.8%.

CONCLUSION: The correction of respiratory motion mainly impacts the lung and tumor doses but only for some patients. The largest dose differences are observed for the smallest lesions.

PMID:36749446 | DOI:10.1186/s40658-023-00525-y

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

A systematic review of the comparison between needling (RF-needling, meso-needling, and micro-needling) and ablative fractional lasers (CO2, erbium YAG) in the treatment of atrophic and hypertrophic scars

Lasers Med Sci. 2023 Feb 7;38(1):67. doi: 10.1007/s10103-022-03694-x.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to compare needling (RF-needling, meso-needling, micro-needling) and ablative fractional lasers (CO2, erbium-YAG) in the treatment of atrophic and hypertrophic scars in a systematic review. The database was searched, and 10 articles were selected that were relevant in terms of content, topic, and purpose and met the inclusion criteria. Of all the articles reviewed in this study, there were 2 randomized split-face trials (20%), 1 controlled nonrandomized trial (10%), 1 controlled randomized phase III clinical trial (10%), 1 prospective trial (10%), 1 prospective nonrandomized open-label trial (10%), and 1 randomized comparative trial (10%), with the type of study not reported in 3 articles. We used Endnote X8 to review the articles and extract data. After review, the studies were analyzed and categorized. No statistically significant difference was found between the two methods, laser and micro-needling, in the treatment of atrophic and hypertrophic scars in 60% of the articles studied, and both showed significant improvement (70% or more improvement to complete response). Significant improvement was noted in 20% of the studies reviewed for the laser and micro-needling treatment methods. The results of this study show that needling and ablative fractional lasers are tolerable and safe procedures with no significant difference in the treatment of skin scars in sixty percent of the studies.

PMID:36749436 | DOI:10.1007/s10103-022-03694-x

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Clinical study PEPCA : The effect of standardized preoperative patient education for patient-controlled regional analgesia on postoperative pain

Schmerz. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s00482-023-00698-6. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a well-established form of postoperative pain management. One form of administration is patient-controlled regional analgesia (PCRA), where local anesthetics are administered via peripheral regional catheters; however, a prerequisite is that the patients are instructed on its use. A multitude of sources recommend that these instructions are given before surgery as preoperative training on pain management procedures has been shown to significantly reduce patients’ postoperative pain and increase their well-being.

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the effect of guideline-assisted preoperative patient education for PCRA on postoperative pain in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery compared to unstructured postoperative standard instructions.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A controlled study with two randomized samples and a postinterventional survey was conducted. Overall, 73 patients with PCRA catheters for orthopedic surgery were enrolled in the study. The 37 participants in the interventional group (IG) received guideline-based structured instructions on PCRA use as well as a handout immediately before the surgical intervention. The 36 patients in the control group (CG) received postoperative instructions in the anesthesia recovery room. Pain was documented according to the numerical rating scale (NRS) at 2h (t1), 6h (t2), and 24h (t3) after surgery.

RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the average pain scores between the two groups; however, there were lower mean pain scores in the IG at t1 and t3.

CONCLUSION: A significant reduction of pain in the IG could not be shown. Further studies concerning this topic with larger samples and adapted points in time are recommended.

PMID:36749413 | DOI:10.1007/s00482-023-00698-6

Categories
Nevin Manimala Statistics

Design, metallurgy, mechanical properties, and shaping ability of 3 heat-treated reciprocating systems: a multimethod investigation

Clin Oral Investig. 2023 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s00784-023-04899-2. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare 3 reciprocating systems regarding design, metallurgy, mechanical properties, and shaping ability.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: New Reciproc Blue R25, WaveOne Gold Primary, and REX 25 instruments (n=41 per group) were analyzed regarding design, metallurgy, and mechanical performance, while shaping ability (untouched canal walls, volume of removed dentin, and hard tissue debris) was tested in 36 anatomically matched root canals of mandibular molars. Results were compared using one-way ANOVA post hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significant level set at 5%.

RESULTS: All instruments showed symmetrical cross sections with asymmetrical blades, no radial lands, no major defects, and an almost equiatomic nickel and titanium ratio. The highest R-phase start temperatures were observed with WaveOne Gold (46.1°C) and REX (44.8°C), while Reciproc Blue had the lowest R-phase start (34.5°C) and finish (20°C) temperatures. WaveOne Gold had the lowest time to fracture (169 s) and the highest maximum load (301.6 gf) (P <0.05). The maximum torque of Reciproc Blue (2.2 N.cm) and WaveOne Gold (2.1 N.cm) were similar (P >0.05), but lower than REX (2.6 N.cm) (P <0.05). No statistical differences were observed among instruments in the angle of rotation (P >0.05) and in the shaping ability in both mesial and distal canals (P >0.05).

CONCLUSION: Although the overall design, temperature transition phases and mechanical behavior parameters were different among tested instruments, they were similar in terms of shaping ability.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: All tested heat-treated NiTi reciprocating systems showed similar shaping ability, without clinically significant errors.

PMID:36749411 | DOI:10.1007/s00784-023-04899-2