Clin Oral Investig. 2021 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00784-021-03811-0. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of Theracal PT, Theracal LC, and MTA Angelus, considered as bioactive materials used for vital pulp treatment, on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were isolated from third molars, and material eluates were prepared (undiluted, 1:2, and 1:4 ratios). The hDPSC cytotoxicity, adhesion, morphology, viability, and cell migration were assessed. The mineralization nodule formation was determined by Alizarin red S staining (ARS). The odonto/osteogenic differentiation potential was assessed by osteo/odontogenic marker expression real-time qPCR. The chemical composition and ion release of the vital pulp materials were determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Statistical differences were assessed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05).
RESULTS: The three vital pulp materials showed variable levels of calcium, tungsten, silicon, and zirconium release and in their chemical composition. Cytocompatibility assays revealed higher hDPSC viability and migration rates when treated with Theracal PT than with Theracal LC. The lowest cell adhesion and spreading were observed in all Theracal LC-treated groups, whereas the highest were observed when treated with MTA. Theracal PT and MTA promoted the upregulation of DSPP and RUNX2 gene expression (p < 0.05). After 21 days, both MTA Angelus and Theracal PT-treated cells exhibited a significantly higher mineralized nodule formation than the negative control (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the favorable in vitro cytocompatibility and bioactive properties of the recently introduced Theracal PT and the well-established MTA Angelus on hDPSCs, as opposed to Theracal LC. More studies, including in vivo animal testing are suggested before these new formulations might be used in the clinical setting.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Theracal PT is a new material that could be clinically suitable for vital pulp therapy. Further studies considering its biocompatibility and bioactivity are necessary.