Genome Biol Evol. 2022 Jun 8:evac088. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evac088. Online ahead of print.
As both natural selection and population history can affect genome-wide patterns of variation, disentangling the contributions of each has remained as a major challenge in population genetics. We here discuss historical and recent progress towards this goal – highlighting theoretical and computational challenges that remain to be addressed, as well as inherent difficulties in dealing with model complexity and model violations – and offer thoughts on potentially fruitful next steps.