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Pulmonary toxicity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate after intratracheal instillation in sprague-dawley rats

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2022 Jan-Dec;41:9603271221106336. doi: 10.1177/09603271221106336.


In water, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), a source for chlorine gas generation, releases free available chlorine in the form of hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidizing agent. NaDCC has been used as a disinfectant in humidifiers; however, its inhalation toxicity is a concern. Seven-week-old rats were exposed to NaDCC doses of 100, 500, and 2500 μg·kg-1 body weight by intratracheal instillation (ITI) to investigate pulmonary toxicity. The rats were sacrificed at 1 d (exposure group) or 14 d (recovery group) after ITI. Despite a slight decrease in body weight after exposure, there was no statistically significant difference between the control and NaDCC-treated groups. A significant increase in the total protein level of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in the exposure groups. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage into the BALF increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the exposure groups; however, recovery was observed after 14 d. The measurement of cytokines in the BALF samples indicated a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-6 in the exposure group and IL-8 in the recovery group. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory foci and pulmonary edema around the terminal bronchioles and alveoli. This study demonstrated that ITI of NaDCC induced reversible pulmonary edema and inflammation without hepatic involvement in rats.

PMID:35675544 | DOI:10.1177/09603271221106336

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