Orthop Surg. 2022 Jun 10. doi: 10.1111/os.13351. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of postoperative respiratory complications (PRCs) in children with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) following posterior spine deformity surgery (PSDS) based on growth-friendly techniques, so as to help improve the safety of surgery.
METHODS: A retrospective study of children with EOS admitted for PSDS based on growth-friendly techniques from October 2013 to October 2018 was reviewed at a single center. There were 73 children (30 boys, 43 girls) who fulfilled the criteria in this research. The mean age of the patients was 7 ± 6.2 years. Patients were divided into the groups with and without PRCs. Variables that might affect the PRCs during the perioperative period, including general factors, radiographic factors, laboratory factors and surgical factors, were analyzed using univariate analysis to evaluate the potential risk factors. The variables that were significantly different were further analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis to identify the independent factors of PRCs.
RESULTS: All the 73 children included 42 idiopathic scoliosis (57.5%), 12 congenital scoliosis (16.4%), 10 syndromic scoliosis (13.7%) and nine neuromuscular scoliosis (12.3%). PRCs were detected in 16 children (21.9%) with nine different PRCs. The total frequency of detected PRCs was 54, including pleural effusion (25.9%), postoperative pneumonia (20.4%), hypoxemia (18.5%), atelectasis (14.8%), prolonged intubation with mechanical positive pressure ventilatory support (PIMPPVS) (7.4%), bronchospasm (3.7%), reintubation (3.7%), delayed extubation (3.7%) and pneumothorax (1.9%). Results of univariate testing demonstrated that the following six variables were statistically different (P < 0.05): nonidiopathic scoliosis, combined with pulmonary comorbidities, pretransferrin < 200 mg/dL, prealbumin < 3.5 g/dL, anesthesia time ≥ 300 min and blood loss to total blood volume ratio (BL/TBV) ≥ 15%. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that BL/TBV≥15% (odd ratio OR = 29.188, P = 0.010), combined with pulmonary comorbidities (OR = 19.216, P = 0.012), pretransferrin < 200 mg/dL (OR = 11.503, p = 0.024), and nonidiopathic scoliosis (OR = 7.632, P = 0.046) were positively linear correlated with PRCs in children with EOS following PSDS.
CONCLUSION: PRCs has a higher incidence in children with EOS following PSDS. BL/TBV ≥15%, combined with pulmonary comorbidities, pre-transferrin < 200 mg/dL, and nonidiopathic scoliosis play an important role for the development of PRCs in this population.