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Ileus in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: a retrospective, pharmacovigilance study using Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2022 Jun 10. doi: 10.1002/pds.5493. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been widely used in cancer treatment; however, some case reports suggested that ICIs treatment might result in ileus. This study aims to comprehensively reveal the relationship between ileus and ICIs treatment in real-world cases from Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

METHODS: Reports from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2020 were extracted from the FAERS. ICIs-related adverse events in patients were defined as related to use of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibodies (PD-1, nivolumab and pembrolizumab), anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 inhibitors (PD-L1, atezolizumab, durvalumab, avelumab, and cemiplimab), and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab and tremelimumab). ICIs-related ileus cases were identified to characterize their clinical features. Reporting odds ratios (ROR) and information component (IC) were used to assess the relationship between ICIs and ileus.

RESULTS: Among the 105001 cases related to ICIs, 245 were reported with ICI-related ileus. The affected patients were mainly elderly (median age, 64.5 years) and male (58%, n=143). The median onset for all cases was 36 (range 0-880) days, and no statistical difference was observed between monotherapy and combination therapy (PD-1 or PD-L1 plus CTLA-4) (p = 0.21). Most patients required drug withdrawal treatment (n=113, 74%) and can achieve a recovered-resolved state (n=72, 46%). All ICIs were significantly associated with ileus (ROR=4.27, 95%Cl: 3.75-4.85; IC=2.04, 95%Cl: 1.79-2.31). Ileus events were most commonly reported in PD-1 treatment (n=164, ROR=3.83, 95%Cl: 3.28-4.48; IC=1.90, 95%Cl: 1.62-2.21).

CONCLUSION: This pharmacovigilance database analysis suggested that ICIs are related to ileus. However, combination therapy may not speed up the onset of ileus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID:35689298 | DOI:10.1002/pds.5493

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