Dig Dis Sci. 2022 Jun 13. doi: 10.1007/s10620-022-07518-4. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: The utility of combination rectal NSAID and topical epinephrine (EI) or rectal NSAID and normal saline (SI) sprayed on duodenal papilla in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) has been studied but results have been conflicting.
AIMS: To evaluate the benefit of using combination prophylaxis in preventing PEP.
METHODS: A literature search was performed using Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases in May 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults patients who underwent ERCP and received EI versus SI were eligible for inclusion. The pooled effect was expressed as odds ratio (OR) to assess the rate of PEP, severity of PEP, and specific adverse events. The results were pooled using Reviewer Manager 5.4 software.
RESULTS: Six RCTs involving 4016 patients were included in the final analysis. The EI group did not demonstrate any significant benefit over SI group in preventing PEP (OR = 1.00, 95% CI [0.68, 1.45], P = 0.98), irrespective of gender or the epinephrine concentration used. The tests for subgroup differences were not statistically significant with P-values of 0.66 and 0.28, respectively. The addition of topical epinephrine to rectal NSAID did not improve the rate of moderate to severe PEP (OR = 0.94, P = 0.86) or PEP in high-risk patients (OR = 1.14, 95%, P = 0.73). The rates of infection, including cholangitis and sepsis (OR = 0.63, P = 0.07), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR = 1.25, P = 0.56) and procedure-related death (OR = 0.71, P = 0.59) were similar between both groups.
CONCLUSION: The addition of topical epinephrine did not demonstrate any benefit over rectal NSAID alone in preventing PEP or reducing other procedure-related adverse events.