J Ultrasound Med. 2022 Jun 13. doi: 10.1002/jum.16040. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: This is a prospective study to evaluate the clinical value of high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS), superb microvascular imaging (SMI), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiation of pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) and highly active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS: Twenty PVNS patients and 24 active RA patients were selected to undergo HFUS, SMI, and CEUS examinations. The characteristics of HFUS, SMI, and CEUS in PVNS and RA were compared, and the differential diagnosis performances of HFUS, SMI, and CEUS in PVNS and RA were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.
RESULTS: There were statistically significant in joint effusion, synovial thickness, synovial morphology, synovial echo, synovial vessel shape, synovial enhanced direction, and enhanced pattern between PVNS and RA (P < .05). However, no statistically significant were found in bone erosion, synovial boundary, blood signal grading of synovium, synovial enhanced strength, and CEUS quantitative parameters (including PI, TTP, S, MTT, and AUC) (P > .05). The AUC of HFUS, SMI, and CEUS for differential diagnosis PVNS and RA were 0.832, 0.675, and 0.817, respectively. The AUC of HFUS + SMI, HFUS + CEUS, SMI + CEUS, HFUS + SMI + CEUS were 0.923, 0.940, 0.817, and 0.940, respectively. The AUC of HFUS + SMI and HFUS + CEUS was higher than that of each alone (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: HFUS, SMI, and CEUS can be used as supplementary methods for diagnosis and differential diagnosis in PVNS and active RA. What is more, the combination of HFUS + SMI and HFUS + CEUS was suggested.