JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2216958. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.16958.
IMPORTANCE: Breast cancer causes disproportionate disease burden among various racial and ethnic groups in the US. However, state-level temporal trends and racial and ethnic disparities and whether metabolic and lifestyle factors and screening access are associated with temporal changes remain largely unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate temporal trends and racial and ethnic variations at the state level and ecological correlations between obesity, physical activity, and mammography screening and breast cancer incidence and mortality trends among women in the US.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze breast cancer incidence and mortality trends among women in the US from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2017, whereas an ecological analysis was performed to assess the associations. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2021, to September 30, 2021. Population-based cancer registry data were obtained from US Cancer Statistics incidence and mortality data. Prevalence of obesity, physical activity, and mammography screening were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
EXPOSURES: Prevalence of obesity, physical activity, and mammography screening.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast cancer incidence and mortality trends from 1999 to 2017 in the 50 US states and the District of Columbia.
RESULTS: A total of 4 136 123 breast cancer cases and 782 454 deaths were included in the analysis, with a significant reduction in incidence (average annual percent change [AAPC], -0.4% [95% CI, -0.6% to -0.2%)]) and mortality (AAPC, -1.7% [95% CI, -1.8% to -1.5%]) during the study period. A significant state-level variation in breast cancer incidence and mortality between White women and those of other races and ethnicities was observed. A significant positive correlation was found between obesity and breast cancer incidence (r = 0.316; P = .02) and mortality (r = 0.400; P = .004) and an inverse correlation was found between physical activity and incidence (r = -0.577; P < .001) in women 55 years or older and mammography screening and mortality trends (r = -0.644; P < .001) in women 40 years or older.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that racial and ethnic disparities exist at the state level with regard to breast cancer incidence and mortality among women in the US. Metabolic and lifestyle factors and screening access were associated with the observed trends and racial and ethnic disparities. Interventions targeting these factors may help reduce the incidence of breast cancer and related deaths.