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Immune characteristics of children with autoimmune encephalitis and the correlation with a short-term prognosis

Ital J Pediatr. 2022 Jun 13;48(1):94. doi: 10.1186/s13052-022-01247-0.


BACKGROUND: Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a type of encephalopathy mediated by an antigenic immune response in the central nervous system. Most research related to autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is focused on early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis analysis; there has been little research conducted on the characteristics of immune function, and the relationship between immune function and prognoses of patients with autoimmune encephalitis needs to be studied further.

METHODS: A total of 33 children with autoimmune encephalitis were identified through the clinic database and inpatient consults at Tianjin Children’s Hospital from January 2013 to January 2021. Based on the one-year follow-up and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) prognosis score, they were divided into a good prognosis group and a poor prognosis group. The immune function characteristics of the two groups of children with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) were compared using Spearman correlation to analyse the mRS score and immune function indicators (IgA, IgG, IgM, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8), and binary logistic regression was used to analyse the independent risk factors of the prognoses in patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE).

RESULTS: The differences in abnormal mental disorders and limb dyskinesia, cognitive impairment, onset types, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at admission, and immune function status during remission between the two groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: There is a close correlation between modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and the immune function index CD4/CD8 in children with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) when they are admitted to the hospital. A young age, disturbance of consciousness, limb dyskinesia, abnormal immune function in remission and anti-NMDAR encephalitis are risk factors for poor prognoses in children with autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Clinical treatment requires more attention.

PMID:35698204 | DOI:10.1186/s13052-022-01247-0

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