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The incidence and mortality of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Indonesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

PLoS One. 2022 Jun 13;17(6):e0269706. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0269706. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: The incidence of childhood ALL in Indonesia is still largely unknown. The widely mentioned statistics from other countries turn out to be only estimated figures. Other data do not specify the types of leukemia and are not specifically focused on children. Therefore, this study aims to pool incidence and mortality statistics from available studies in Indonesia.

METHODS: We searched five different academic databases, including Pubmed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. Three Indonesian databases, such as the Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD), Neliti, and Indonesia One Search, were also utilized. Incidence was expressed as per 100,000 children. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) to assess the quality of cohort studies. The inclusion criteria are cohort studies published in the languages of English or Indonesian. For this analysis, we define children as 0-18 years old.

FINDINGS: The incidence rate for childhood ALL was found to be 4.32 per 100,000 children (95% CI 2.65-5.99) with a prediction interval of 1.98 to 9.42 per 100,000 children. The incidence rate is higher in males, with 2.45 per 100,000 children (95% CI 1.98-2.91) and a prediction interval of 1.90 to 3.16 per 100,000 children. As for females, the incidence rate is 2.05 per 100,000 children (95% CI 1.52-2.77) with a prediction interval of 1.52 to 2.77 per 100,000 children. The mortality of childhood ALL ranges from 0.44 to 5.3 deaths per 100,000 children, while the CFR is 3.58% with varying true effect sizes of 2.84% to 4.52%.

INTERPRETATION: With 79.5 million children living in Indonesia in 2018, this means that there were roughly 3,434 new cases of childhood ALL. An organized effort between multiple sectors is needed to improve the registries of childhood ALL in Indonesia.

PMID:35696384 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0269706

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