J Periodontal Res. 2022 Jun 14. doi: 10.1111/jre.13006. Online ahead of print.
Periodontal disease is a major threat to oral health and would further contribute to systemic diseases without timely control. We aimed to evaluate the relation between periodontal disease, periodontal treatment and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) based on available epidemiological and clinical evidence. PubMed and Scopus were searched for relevant studies through May 2021. Observational studies reporting risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between periodontal disease (including periodontitis and gingivitis) and risk of increased CIMT (defined as CIMT value that exceeded the cut-off value of clinical and prognostic significance), as well as interventional studies providing mean values with standard deviations of CIMT before and after periodontal intervention, were included. Random-effect models for meta-analysis were used to calculate the summary effect estimates with 95% CIs. A total of 406 citations were retrieved from electronic databases and 45 full-text articles were screened, leaving 11 articles using ultrasound to measure CIMT with 8744 participants included. Pooled results of seven cross-sectional studies involving 8558 participants indicated that compared to those without periodontitis, patients with periodontitis and those with severe periodontitis had an odds ratio of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.75) and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.24, 2.33) for increased CIMT, respectively. Although publication bias was detected in these results, odds ratios corrected by the trim-and-fill method were still statistically significant. Results of four non-randomized controlled trials with 186 patients suggested that periodontal intervention may help reduce CIMT in patients with periodontal disease in the short term. Periodontitis, especially severe periodontitis, was significantly associated with the risk of increased CIMT. Periodontal intervention might help slow the progression of carotid intima-media thickening in patients with periodontal disease in the short term.