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HIV/AIDS patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty are at higher risk of acute renal failure and transfusion and incurred higher cost: a propensity-matched database study

Knee Surg Relat Res. 2022 Jun 15;34(1):28. doi: 10.1186/s43019-022-00156-0.


INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in HIV-positive patients has not been well documented in the current literature. Thus, this study aimed to examine the early postoperative outcomes and complications of HIV-positive TKA patients as compared to TKA patients who are HIV-negative patients by utilizing the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database.

METHODS: Admissions data for TKA and HIV were analyzed from the NIS database using ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. An extensive array of preoperative and postoperative variables was compared among HIV positive TKA patients and HIV negative TKA patients. An unmatched analysis and a matched analysis using a 1:1 propensity match algorithm were conducted to compare the two groups.

RESULTS: The average age of the HIV-positive group was lower than the HIV-negative group (59.0 vs 66.7, p < 0.001). The HIV-positive group had a smaller percentage of females (38.4% vs 61.5%, p < 0.001) and a lower incidence of tobacco-related disorders than the HIV-negative group (10.3% vs 15.8%, p = 0.032). The HIV-positive group had a longer mean length of stay (3.0 days vs 2.4 days, p < 0.001) and a greater mean total charge incurred (90,780.25 vs 64,801.55, p < 0.001). In the unmatched analysis, the incidence of acute renal failure (6.4% vs 2%, p < 0.001), transfusions (3.9% vs 1.5%, p = 0.004), and periprosthetic joint infection (3% vs 1%, p = 0.007) was higher in HIV positive group. The matched analysis showed a higher incidence of acute renal failure group (6.4% vs 0.5%, p = 0.01) and transfusions (3.9% vs 5%, p = 0.01) in the HIV-positive but a statistically insignificant difference in the rate of periprosthetic joint infection (3% vs 1%, p = 0.153).

CONCLUSION: HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased incidence of acute renal failure and transfusions, as well as a longer length of stay and higher incurred costs in TKA patients.

PMID:35706063 | DOI:10.1186/s43019-022-00156-0

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