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Impact of scaling and root planing on salivary and serum Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 expression in patients with periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus

J Periodontol. 2022 Jun 16. doi: 10.1002/JPER.22-0129. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is significantly enhanced in insulin resistance and inflammation and ascribed as a pro-inflammatory marker. This study aimed to compare and correlate salivary and serum PAI-1 and alpha 2-macroglobulin (α2MG) in patients with periodontitis with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and also appraise the consequence of periodontal treatment on these biomarkers.

METHODS: 60 subjects enlisted were split into two groups; Group 1 consisted of 30 systemically healthy subjects with Stage II and III, generalised, Grade B, C periodontitis while Group 2 consisted of 30 patients with periodontitis and well-controlled T2DM (PDM). Salivary and serum PAI-1 and α2MG levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and allied with clinical parameters before and 3 months post non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Data was statistically analysed using student t test and Spearman’s correlation.

RESULTS: Analogous improvements in clinical periodontal markers were experienced in both groups after initial periodontal treatment. Estimates of salivary and serum PAI-1 and α2MG were higher among the PDM group compared to periodontitis alone at baseline. Significant diminution in estimates of biomarkers was noted 3 months after NSPT. In the PDM group, there was also an improvement in glycaemic control.

CONCLUSION: NSPT positively impacted both groups. Noteworthy expression of salivary and serum PAI-1 in periodontitis and diabetes patients insinuates a possible role of the adipokine in periodontal inflammation and glucose level regulation. Salivary PAI-1 could thus be used as a diagnostic biomarker to detect disease activity and to track periodontal therapy response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID:35708712 | DOI:10.1002/JPER.22-0129

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