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Prevalence and determinants of aggressive behavior among adults with problematic substance use in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

BMC Psychiatry. 2022 Jun 15;22(1):402. doi: 10.1186/s12888-022-04053-4.


BACKGROUND: The recent WHO data reported that a high treatment gap for behavioral illnesses (70%) in low- and- middle-income countries and the mortality rate of aggressive behavior reaches up to 32.1 per 100,000 populations in the region. However, the magnitude of aggressive behavior is not well stated in resource-limited settings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinant factors of aggressive behavior among adults with problematic substance use in northwest Ethiopia.

METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was employed from January to March 2019. A multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to screen a total of 4028 adults for problematic substance use by using the Cutdown, Annoyed, Guilty, and Eye-opener questionnaire (CAGE AID). Finally, 838 participants were positive for problematic substance use and interviewed for aggressive behavior using a modified overt aggression scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to show the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. A multilevel binary logistic regressions model was employed for the hierarchical structure of two-level data for the individual and woreda/district levels.

RESULTS: The prevalence of aggressive behavior was found to be 37.9% (301/795, 95% CI: 34.5, 41.3). Stressful life events (AOR = 2.209, 95 CI; 1.423, 3.429), family history of mental illness (AOR = 4.038, 95 CI; 2.046, 7.971), comorbid physical illness (AOR = 2.01, 95 CI; 1.332, 3.032) and depressive symptoms (AOR = 2.342, 95 CI; 1.686, 3.253) were associated with aggressive behavior among individual with problem substance use.

CONCLUSION: Aggressive behavior was found to be high among problematic substance uses. An individual with problematic substance use is recommended to be screened by health extension workers for aggressive behavior at the community level.

PMID:35706009 | DOI:10.1186/s12888-022-04053-4

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