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Prevalence of active trachoma and its associated factors among 1-9 years of age children from model and non-model kebeles in Dangila district, northwest Ethiopia

PLoS One. 2022 Jun 15;17(6):e0268441. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268441. eCollection 2022.


BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious disease that leads to blindness worldwide, especially in developing countries. Though Ethiopia had targeted a trachoma elimination program by 2020, the problem worsens, particularly in the Amhara Region. Even though sustained intervention measures are undertaken across the region, it is unclear why trachoma is still a significant public health problem. So, this study assessed the prevalence of active trachoma and associated factors among 1-9 years of age children from model and non-model kebeles in Dangila district Amhara Region, Northwest Ethiopia.

METHODS: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from 20th September 2019 to 29th October 2019. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used to reach 704 children from model and non-model kebeles. Samples were allocated proportionally to model and non-model kebeles. A structured and pretested data collection tool and observational checklist was used to manage the necessary data. Data were coded and entered in Epidata version 4.6, and further analysis was done using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with active trachoma. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR), p-value, and respected Confidence Interval (CI) were used to report the findings.

RESULTS: Seven hundred four children were included in this study, with a response rate of 97.8%. The overall prevalence of active trachoma was 6% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1). The prevalence of active trachoma among non-model and model Kebele was not significantly different. Still, the prevalence of active trachoma among children from model Kebele were [4.5%, (95% CI: 2.4%, 7.1%)] relatively lower compared with non-model kebeles, [7.6%, 95% CI: (4.9%, 10.9%)]. Moreover, not using latrine (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.96, 9.34), fly-eye contact (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.11, 6.03), presence of sleep in eyes (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.10, 5.47), presence of ocular discharge (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.30, 6.00), presence of nasal discharges (AOR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 5.90) and washing faces with soap (AOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.69) were found significantly associated with the prevalence of active trachoma among children 1-9 years old.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of active trachoma in the model and non-model kebeles was high and did not show a statistical difference. Attention to be given to latrine utilization, washing face with soap, and other personal hygiene activities.

PMID:35704657 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0268441

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