Methods Mol Biol. 2022;2496:123-140. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2305-3_7.
The major outcomes and insights of scientific research and clinical study end up in the form of publication or clinical record in an unstructured text format. Due to advancements in biomedical research, the growth of published literature is getting tremendous large in recent years. The scientists and clinical researchers are facing a big challenge to stay current with the knowledge and to extract hidden information from this sheer quantity of millions of published biomedical literature. The potential one-stop automated solution to this problem is biomedical literature mining. One of the long-standing goals in biology is to discover the disease-causing genes and their specific roles in personalized precision medicine and drug repurposing. However, the empirical approaches and clinical affirmation are expensive and time-consuming. In silico approach using text mining to identify the disease causing genes can contribute towards biomarker discovery. This chapter presents a protocol on combining literature mining and machine learning for predicting biomedical discoveries with a special emphasis on gene-disease relation based discovery. The protocol is presented as a literature based discovery (LBD) pipeline for gene-disease based discovery. The protocol includes our web based tools: (1) DNER (Disease Named Entity Recognizer) for disease entity recognition, (2) BCCNER (Bidirectional, Contextual clues Named Entity Tagger) for gene/protein entity recognition, (3) DisGeReExT (Disease-Gene Relation Extractor) for statistically validated results and visualization, and (4) a newly introduced deep learning based method for association discovery. Our proposed deep learning based method can be generalized and applied to other important biomedical discoveries focusing on entities such as drug/chemical, or miRNA.