Future Oncol. 2022 Jun 17. doi: 10.2217/fon-2021-1554. Online ahead of print.
Aim: To evaluate the association between pretreatment diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and 12-month radiological response in locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Methods: Histogram analysis was performed on pretreatment DW-MRI for patients re-irradiated with carbon ion radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer. Results: A total of 17 patients were enrolled in the study. Pretreatment DW-MRI b-value of 1000 s/mm2 (b1000) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) lesion median values for 1-year nonresponders (six patients) and responders (11 patients) demonstrated a median (interquartile of median values) of 62.5 (23.9) and 34.0 (13.0) and 953.0 (277.0) and 942.5 (339.0) μm2/s, respectively. All b1000 histogram features (h-features) and ADC h-kurtosis showed statistically significant differences, whereas only b1000 h-median, b1000 h-interquartile range and ADC h-kurtosis demonstrated remarkable diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: DW-MRI showed promising results in predicting carbon ion radiotherapy outcome in local recurrence of rectal cancer, particularly with regard to b1000 h-median, b1000 h-interquartile range and ADC h-kurtosis.