Obesity (Silver Spring). 2022 Jun 17. doi: 10.1002/oby.23453. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic bariatric procedures are potentially efficacious treatment options in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous meta-analyses focused on individual operative approaches rather than the mechanistic pathways behind different bariatric procedures. This updated network meta-analysis aimed to synthesize new evidence and comparatively evaluate the efficacy of metabolic surgery against restrictive procedures and standard first-line treatment for patients with T2DM.
METHODS: Embase, MEDLINE, and trial registries were searched for randomized controlled trials on bariatric surgeries in patients with T2DM on September 3, 2021. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted. The primary outcome was T2DM remission. Secondary outcomes included changes in BMI, lipoprotein levels, and blood pressure.
RESULTS: Thirty-two articles were included. Metabolic surgery was statistically superior to restrictive procedures (risk ratio [RR]: 2.57, 95% credibility intervals [CrI]: 1.36-5.43), medical therapy (RR: 35.29, 95% Crl: 10.56-183.23), and lifestyle intervention (RR: 40.51, 95% Crl: 5.32-402.59) in T2DM remission. Metabolic surgery significantly lowered BMI and blood pressure compared with other interventions. Restrictive procedures significantly increased high-density lipoprotein compared with metabolic surgery. Lifestyle intervention and metabolic surgery were statistically superior to restrictive procedures in reducing low-density lipoprotein.
CONCLUSIONS: The superiority in diabetes remission and favorable metabolic profile support the choice of metabolic surgery over restrictive bariatric procedures.