Sports Med Open. 2022 Jun 20;8(1):80. doi: 10.1186/s40798-022-00474-3.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to investigate the serum amino acid (AA) changes after a breath-hold diving (BH-diving) training session under several aspects including energy need, fatigue tolerance, nitric oxide (NO) production, antioxidant synthesis and hypoxia adaptation. Twelve trained BH-divers were investigated during an open sea training session and sampled for blood 30 min before the training session, 30 min and 4 h after the training session. Serum samples were assayed for AA changes related to energy request (alanine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, proline threonine, valine), fatigue tolerance (ornithine, phenylalanine, tyrosine), nitric oxide production (citrulline), antioxidant synthesis (cystine, glutamate, glycine) and hypoxia adaptation (serine, taurine).
MAIN RESULTS: Concerning the AA used as an energy support during physical effort, we found statistically significant decreases for all the investigated AA at T1 and a gradual return to the basal value at T2 even if alanine, proline and theonine still showed a slight significant reduction at this time. Also, the changes related to the AA involved in tolerance to physical effort showed a statistically significant decrease only at T1 respect to pre-diving value and a returned to normal value at T2. Citrulline, involved in NO production, showed a clear significant reduction both at T1 and T2. Concerning AA involved in endogenous antioxidant synthesis, the behaviour of the three AA investigated is different: we found a statistically significant increase in cystine both at T1 and T2, while glycine showed a statistically significant reduction (T1 and T2). Glutamate did not show any statistical difference. Finally, we found a statistically significant decrease in the AA investigated in other hypoxia conditions serine and taurine (T1 and T2).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data seem to indicate that the energetic metabolic request is in large part supported by AA used as substrate for fuel metabolism and that also fatigue tolerance, NO production and antioxidant synthesis are supported by AA. Finally, there are interesting data related to the hypoxia stimulus that indirectly may confirm that the muscle apparatus works under strong exposure conditions notwithstanding the very short/low intensity of exercise, due to the intermittent hypoxia caused by repetitive diving.