BMC Med Res Methodol. 2022 Jun 19;22(1):175. doi: 10.1186/s12874-022-01655-0.
BACKGROUND: Normalization process theory (NPT) has been widely used to better understand how new interventions are implemented and embedded. The NoMAD (Normalization Measurement Development questionnaire) is a 23-item NPT instrument based on NPT. As the NoMAD is a relatively new instrument, the objectives of this paper are: to describe the experience of implementing the NoMAD, to describe it being used as a feedback mechanism to gain insight into the normalization process of a complex health intervention, and to further explore the psychometric properties of the instrument.
METHODS: Health TAPESTRY was implemented in six Family Health Teams (total of seven sites) across Ontario. Healthcare team members at each site were invited to complete the NoMAD, and three general questions about normalization, six times over a 12-month period. Each site was then provided a visual traffic light summary (TLS) reflecting the implementation of the Health TAPESTRY. The internal consistency of each sub-scale and validity of the NoMAD were assessed. Learnings from the implementation of the NoMAD and subsequent feedback mechanism (TLS) are reported descriptively.
RESULTS: In total, 56 diverse health care team members from six implementation sites completed the NoMAD. Each used it at least once during the 12-month study period. The implementation of the NoMAD and TLS was time consuming to do with multiple collection (and feedback) points. Most (60%) internal consistency values of the four subscales (pooled across site) across each collection point were satisfactory. All correlations were positive, and most (86%) were statistically significant among NoMAD subscales. All but one correlation between the NoMAD subscales and the general questions were positive, and most (72%) were significant. Generally, scores on the subscales were higher at 12-month than baseline, albeit did not follow a linear pattern of change across implementation. Generally, scores were higher for experienced sites compared to first-time implementors.
CONCLUSION: Our experience would suggest fewer collection points; three timepoints spaced out by several months are adequate, if repeated administration of the NoMAD is used for feedback loops. We provide additional evidence of the psychometric properties of the NoMAD.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03397836 .