Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2022 Jun 17:101725. doi: 10.1016/j.clae.2022.101725. Online ahead of print.
Bacterial keratitis (BK) presentations are often treated using the commercially available second-generation fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin 0.3% and ofloxacin 0.3% as monotherapy. The guidelines available for instillation regimes are often not supported by data from clinical studies. This review examines the peer-reviewed clinical studies and compared treatment failure rates for ciprofloxacin 0.3% and ofloxacin 0.3% for BK in relation to Day-1 drop-regimes. From the statistical analysis, this review derived evidence-based clinically applicable minimum drop-regimes for the treatment of BK on Day-1. Lower numbers of drops of ciprofloxacin on Day-1 were significantly associated with increased treatment failure rates (p < 0.002). The derived minimum number of drops on Day for ciprofloxacin on Day-1 was 47 drops, and for ofloxacin 24 drops. The mean number of drops used in the clinical studies was significantly lower than the manufacturers’ recommended Day-1 regimes for both ciprofloxacin (p = 0.0006) and ofloxacin (p = 0.048). From Day-3 to -6 of treatment the drop rates for ciprofloxacin relative to recommended rates were higher, and for ofloxacin lower (p = 0.014). The findings of this review were then compared with a representative sample of published guidelines and case studies to determine the validity of applying those drop-regimes in clinical practice. Although the manufacturers’ suggested minimum drop-regimes on Day-1 were significantly different (120 drops ciprofloxacin, 34 drops ofloxacin, p < 0.0001), many of the published guidelines suggested the same drop-regime for both fluoroquinolones. The suggested drop numbers on Day-1 for ciprofloxacin in these guidelines and case studies were significantly less than those used in the clinical studies (p = 0.043). Increased treatment failure rates for ciprofloxacin are associated with lower drop numbers on Day-1. The Day-1 dosing rates for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin should be considered separately, and the regimes suggested in published guidelines and case studies may need be re-considered in light of the findings of this review.