Math Biosci Eng. 2022 May 12;19(7):7076-7090. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2022334.
PURPOSE: Cerebral artery fenestration is a rare vascular anomaly, but its existence has been increasingly documented. The association of cerebral infarction and fenestration is of great clinical interest, and the exact underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to identify risk factors contributing to cerebral infarction by computational hemodynamics analysis.
METHODS: Eight patients with image findings of fenestration structure were recruited in this research, in which four suffered fenestration-related cerebral infarction (A series) while the other four (B series) were set as control matched by the fenestration size. Three-dimensional models were reconstructed from the MRA images and computational simulations with non-Newtonian flow model were performed to get interested hemodynamic characteristics.
RESULTS: The blood flow pattern was relatively separated along two channels of fenestration in series A compared with series B cases in Group 1-2, however, no significant difference was shown in Group 3-4. Quantitatively, planes were cut in the middle of fenestrations and the ratio of mass flow rate and area was calculated at systolic peak. Results showed that the side of the dominant blood supply was opposite between A and B series, and the dominant side was also opposite between small and large fenestrations. In infarction cases, the basilar top was distributed with larger areas of detrimental hemodynamic indicators and a larger concentrated high viscosity region.
CONCLUSION: The flow division condition throughout the fenestration structure has a key impact on further flow redistribution and flow pattern. The blood viscosity has the potential to be a useful tool in identifying the risk factors for cerebral infarction and more emphasis should be placed on the hemodynamic environment at superior cerebellar arteries.