Nevin Manimala Statistics

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of HIV and Anti-retroviral Drug Perinatally Exposed Uninfected Children Aged 3-6 years

AIDS. 2022 Jun 23. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000003290. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: Given the roll out of maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention-of-perinatal-HIV-transmission, increasing numbers of children are perinatally HIV/ART exposed but uninfected (CAHEU). Some studies suggest CAHEU may be at increased risk for neurodevelopmental (ND) deficits. We aimed to assess ND performance among preschool CAHEU.

DESIGN: This cross-sectional study assessed ND outcomes among 3-6-year-old CAHEU at entry into a multicountry cohort study.

METHODS: We used the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) to assess ND status among 3-6-year-old CAHEU at entry into the PROMISE Ongoing Treatment Evaluation (PROMOTE) study conducted in Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Statistical analyses (Stata 16.1) was used to generate group means for ND composite scores and subscale scores, compared to standardized test score means. We used multivariable analysis to adjust for known developmental risk factors including maternal clinical/socioeconomic variables, child sex, growth-for-age measurements, and country.

RESULTS: 1647 children aged 3-6 years had baseline ND testing in PROMOTE; group-mean unadjusted Cognitive Composite scores on the MSEL were 85.8 (standard deviation [SD]: 18.2) and KABC-II were 79.5 (SD: 13.2). Composite score group-mean differences were noted by country, with South African and Zimbabwean children having higher scores. In KABC-II multivariable analyses, maternal age >40 years, lower education, male sex, and stunting were associated with lower composite scores.

CONCLUSIONS: Among a large cohort of 3-6 year old CAHEU from eastern/southern Africa, group-mean composite ND scores averaged within the low-normal range; with differences noted by country, maternal clinical and socioeconomic factors.

PMID:35730383 | DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000003290

By Nevin Manimala

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