N Z Med J. 2022 Apr 14;135(1553):10-18.
AIM: Our aim was to examine rate of recurrence of toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis and risk factors for recurrence. No New Zealand epidemiological data on recurrence rates of toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis have been previously published.
METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients with toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis presented to Auckland District Health Board Department of Ophthalmology between 2006-2019.
RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 115 patients were included with a median age at initial diagnosis of 36.7 years (IQR 23.7-53.8). Fifty-nine patients were female (51.3%), and 16 patients (13.9%) were immunosuppressed. Twenty-six of the 86 patients tested (30.2%) were IgM positive at presentation. Mean follow-up was 6.1 years and 73 recurrences occurred during the follow-up period in 36 patients (31.3%). Treatment was initiated in 87.4% of cases, with oral cotrimoxazole or clindamycin the most common options. Recurrence occurred in 14.8% in the first year (95% CI 10.3%-21.0%), and the risk of recurrence was increased 2x for every previously documented recurrence (HR 2.00; p<0.001). There was no statistically significant increased risk of recurrence with age, IgM positivity, immunosuppression or macular involvement.
CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis had a 14.8% risk of recurrence in the first year, with each previous recurrence increasing the risk by two-times.