JCO Precis Oncol. 2022 Jun;6:e2100427. doi: 10.1200/PO.21.00427.
PURPOSE: Comprehensive tumor biomarker testing is a fundamental step in the selection of highly effective molecularly driven therapies for a variety of solid tumors. The primary objective of this study was to examine racial differences in biomarker testing and clinical trial participation in the United States using a real-world database.
METHODS: Patients in a real-world deidentified database diagnosed with advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), or metastatic breast cancer were eligible. Biomarker testing and clinical trial participation was compared between Black and White racial groups using chi-squared test and stepwise logistic regression controlling for baseline covariates.
RESULTS: A total of 23,488 patients met eligibility criteria. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) testing rates differed significantly between White versus Black race before first-line therapy (36.6% v 29.7%, P < .0001) and at any given time (54.7% v 43.8%, P < .0001) in the nonsquamous NSCLC cohort. Similar disparities in NGS testing rates at any time during the study were observed among patients with CRC (White 51.6%; Black 41.8%, P < .0001). No differences were observed in the breast cancer cohort. Patients of Black race were less likely to be treated in a clinical trial in the overall NSCLC cohort when compared with White counterparts (3.9% v 2.1%, P = .0002). A statistically significant relationship between biomarker/NGS testing and clinical trial enrollment was observed in all cohorts (P < .003) after adjusting for covariates.
CONCLUSION: In a real-world database, significant disparities in NGS-based testing rates were observed between Black and White races in NSCLC and CRC. NGS and any biomarker testing were both associated with trial enrollment in all cohorts. There is a need for interventions to promote access to comprehensive testing for patients with advanced/metastatic tumors.