PLoS One. 2022 Jun 23;17(6):e0269953. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0269953. eCollection 2022.
BACKGROUND: Individuals with hyperlipidemia are two times more likely to develop atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) as opposed to those with controlled serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. Considering the documented adverse events of the current lipid-lowering medications which ultimately affect patient’s compliance, substantial efforts have been made to develop new therapeutic strategies. Probiotics, on the other hand, are reported to have lipid-lowering activity with the added benefit of being generally well-tolerated making it an appealing adjuvant therapy.
METHODS: A total of fifty Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from raw milk (human and animal) and dairy products. Isolates demonstrating promising in vitro cholesterol removal capabilities were morphologically and biochemically characterized. Lastly, two bacterial candidates were selected for evaluation of their potential hypolipidemic activity using a laboratory animal model. Statistical differences between the means were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Most of the isolates demonstrated an in vitro cholesterol removal activity. The six LAB isolates showing the highest cholesterol removal activity (36.5-55.6%) were morphologically and biochemically identified as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactococcus species. The results demonstrated two promising antihyperlipidemic candidates, a Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with an in vivo significant reduction of serum triglycerides (TG) levels by 34.3%, and a Pediococcus sp. that was able to significantly reduce both the serum TC and TG levels by 17.3% and 47.0%, respectively, as compared to the diet-induced hyperlipidemic animal group.
CONCLUSION: This study further supports the growing evidence regarding the antihyperlipidemic activity among probiotics, presenting them as a promising therapeutic approach for the management of hyperlipidemia.