BMC Pediatr. 2022 Jun 24;22(1):361. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03428-6.
BACKGROUND: Neonatal Mortality Ratio (NMR) could not be reversed sufficiently in Ethiopia in the last couple of years. Neonatal bleeding is one of the major causes of neonatal deaths. Administration of vitamin K prophylaxis at birth is the proven strategy to reduce neonatal death which can be caused by vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Although World Health Organization (WHO) recommends universal supplementation of vitamin K prophylaxis for all neonates at birth, many neonates could not get it in many resource poor countries. Despite its importance, information is scarce about uptake of vitamin K prophylaxis in Ethiopia in 2016. Therefore, this study aimed to identify prevalence and factors associated with vitamin K prophylaxis utilization among neonates in Ethiopia in 2016.
METHODS: Secondary data analysis of EDHS 2016 was done to assess prevalence and predictors of vitamin K prophylaxis among neonates in Ethiopia five years before EDHS 2016. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used in EDHS 2016. Sample weight and complex analysis were used to minimize bias. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with vitamin K prophylaxis. Finally, adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated and P-value less than 0.05 taken as the cuff of point for declaration of the statistical significant association.
RESULTS: Prevalence of vitamin K prophylaxis among neonates in Ethiopia in 2016 was found to be 4710(65.5%) in this study. Factors like: Institutional delivery (AOR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.8, 2.7), neonates from richest family (AOR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.6, 2.7), neonates from richer household (AOR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.8), starting of antenatal care from 3-6 months of gestational age (AOR = 2.9, 95%CI: 2.3, 3.6) were factors positively associated with vitamin K prophylaxis in Ethiopia.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Compared with expected world health organization recommendation of universal supplementation vitamin K prophylaxis, vitamin K utilization is lower among neonates in this study. Hence, it is recommended that strengthen early antenatal care initiation and improving community awareness about vitamin K prophylaxis are the key interventions to improve its uptake. Furthermore, improving institutional delivery might increase uptake of vitamin K prophylaxis.