Przegl Epidemiol. 2022;76(1):37-50. doi: 10.32394/pe.76.05.
INTRODUCTION: The National Cancer Control Programme 2006-2015 (NCCP) was implemented to improve the health situation of Polish women in 2006. Its effectiveness was evaluated by analysing trends of changes in incidence rates of pre-invasive (D05) and invasive (C50) breast cancers in three age cohorts: pre-screening cohort (<50), screening cohort (50-69) and post-screening cohort (>69).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical data of 13,089 women with C50 and 738 women with D05 diagnosed in 2005-2014 in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship (LS) were analysed.
RESULT: In 2009-2014, incidence rates of C50 (p=0.0224) and D05 (p=0.0003) were found to be higher in the LS than those recorded for Poland. During this period, there were approx. 1,400 cases of C50 and 90-100 cases of D05 per year. After the NCCP had been implemented, there was a gradual increase in the proportion of the female population included in the mammography screening, from 32% in 2007 to 45% in 2014. The age group included in the screening programme experienced a significant increase in the proportion of pre-invasive cancers – from 3% in 2005 to 7-10% in 2010-2013. In that group, cancer was statistically more frequently detected in Tis- or T1- stages (p=0.0002). Beneficial effects of screening were also observed in post-screening women. There was no similar trend in patients aged <50.
CONCLUSIONS: This analysis shows positive population effects of mammography screening. The least favourable changes in the detection of early stages of breast cancer were observed in female patients aged less than 50 years. This suggests that some modifications regarding both the age range and the screening interval in the Polish population should be considered.