Nevin Manimala Statistics

Novel treatment for hypotonic airway obstruction and severe obstructive sleep apnea using a nasopharyngeal airway device with 3D printing innovation

J Clin Sleep Med. 2022 Jul 22. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.10202. Online ahead of print.


STUDY OBJECTIVES: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) impacts child and familial well-being. Airway management in patients with hypotonic pharyngeal conditions is complex. Some patients may benefit from CPAP or BPAP, others may require further invasive measures for treatment. There is critical need for treatment alternatives for patients with pharyngeal hypotonia.

METHODS: This is a retrospective case series. Collaboratively with patients, families, biomedical engineers, and medical professionals, a long-term nasopharyngeal airway (NPA) was created to bypass upper airway obstruction. Two patients used a safety pin and tape attachment, and two patients used a novel 3D-printed, self-supporting nasal securement (ssNPA). All four patients had polysomnography before and during NPA use. Paired 1-tailed t-tests were conducted to compare apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), hypopnea index (HI), obstructive index (OI), and oxygen nadir.

RESULTS: Compared to baseline polysomnography, repeat polysomnography with the NPA in place demonstrated statistically significant improvement for AHI (75.8±36.6 to 8.9±2.9, p=0.03), HI (45.4±25.8 to 7.7±3.2, p=0.04), and SpO2 nadir (60.3±13.0% to 79.3±8.7%, p=0.01). The NPA had been used for over one year in three of the four children. Those using the safety pin and tape did report skin irritation due to adhesive required to keep device in place.

CONCLUSIONS: Current management of severe upper airway obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea in hypotonic pharyngeal conditions requires a team-based approach to care. A long-term NPA device may be an alternative or temporizing option to CPAP, upper airway surgery, or tracheostomy in children with pharyngeal hypotonia and severe OSA. Larger studies of this approach are underway to assess efficacy in a range of OSA severity in this population.

PMID:35866230 | DOI:10.5664/jcsm.10202

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