Exp Clin Transplant. 2022 Jul 22. doi: 10.6002/ect.2022.0043. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplant remains the gold standard for the treatment of end-stage renal disease. Relationships between the presence of non-HLA antibodies, antibodies to AT1R, and cytokine gene polymorphisms with rejection have recently been shown. We sought to determine whether the presence of antibodies to AT1R and cytokine gene polymorphisms affected the development of rejection in pediatric and adult patients, whether a relationship is present between cytokine polymorphism and level of antibodies to AT1R, and whether their presence can be a biomarker pretransplant.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 100 pediatric and adult kidney transplant patients plus 50 healthy controls. Levels of AT1R antibodies (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and gene polymorphisms of the cytokines transforming growth factor β, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6 and 10, and interferon gamma cytokines (by sequence- specific primer-polymerase chain reaction) were studied retrospectively and evaluated with the SPSS statistical program.
RESULTS: We found no statistically significant relationship between levels of antibodies to AT1R and gene polymorphisms among the studied cytokines in patients with rejection compared with the healthy controls and patients with uneventful courses posttransplant. However, higher levels of antibodies to AT1R were observed in pediatric compared with adult transplant recipients (P < .001). A statistically significant relationship was also observed between transforming growth factor β1 C/C G/C low-release and interleukin 6 G/C high-release gene polymorphism and levels of antibodies to AT1R (P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Because we observed that some gene polymorphisms among the studied cytokines may affect AT1R antibody levels, future studies are needed to understand the mechanism of the relationship. In addition, studies with larger groups are required to sufficiently confirm that higher antibody levels are present in pediatric versus adult patients.