J Clin Oncol. 2022 Jul 22:JCO2200229. doi: 10.1200/JCO.22.00229. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed (+) in a subset of salivary gland cancers (SGCs). This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of the antiandrogen enzalutamide in AR+ SGC.
METHODS: Patients with locally advanced/unresectable or metastatic AR+ SGCs were enrolled. Enzalutamide (160 mg) was given orally once daily. The primary end point was the best overall response rate per RECIST v1.1 within eight cycles. Confirmed responses in ≥ 5 of 41 patients would be considered promising. Secondary end points were progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety.
RESULTS: Forty-six patients were enrolled; 30 (65.2%) received prior systemic therapy, including 13 (28.3%) with AR-targeted drugs. Of seven (15.2%) partial responses (PRs), only two (4.3%) were confirmed per protocol and counted toward the primary end point. Twenty-four patients (52.2%) had stable disease; 15 (32.6%) had progression of disease as best response. Twenty-six patients (56.5%) experienced tumor regression in target lesions; 18 (39.1%) had partial response/stable disease ≥ 6 months. Tumor regressions were observed in female patients (5 of 6 [83.3%]) and those who received prior AR- (6 of 13 [46.2%]) or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-targeted therapies (5 of 8 [62.5%]). Three patients remained on treatment at data cutoff (duration, 32.2-49.8 months). The median progression-free survival was 5.6 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 7.5); the median overall survival was 17.0 months (95% CI, 11.8 to 30.0). The most common adverse events were fatigue, hypertension, hot flashes, and weight loss. Total and free testosterone levels increased by a mean of 61.2% and 48.8%, respectively, after enzalutamide.
CONCLUSION: Enzalutamide demonstrated limited activity in AR+ SGC, failing to meet protocol-defined success in part because of a lack of response durability. Strategies to enhance the efficacy of antiandrogen therapy are needed.